By Syma A. Ebbin, Alf H. Hoel, Are Sydnes
This can be the 1st systematic evaluate of the overseas 200-mile particular monetary sector. thus far, one hundred forty five states have ratified the legislation of the ocean conference, and so much have validated EEZs. This quantity makes a speciality of the explicit nature of the EEZ and the development and evolution of associations stemming from its creation, in particular studying advancements at neighborhood, nationwide and foreign degrees.
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Additional info for A Sea Change: The Exclusive Economic Zone and Governance Institutions for Living Marine Resources
These regimes have been supplemented in important ways by the Agreement for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (referred to hereafter as the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement). The paper concludes with some tentative views about how the regime has stood up since its inception over 25 years ago. 2. THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF STATES IN THE EEZ The provisions of the LOSC – and its predecessor draft texts – were carefully drafted in order to achieve a balance between the resource interests of the coastal state in its offshore waters and the interests of those states who wished to ensure that any new oceans regime did not encroach unduly on the traditional freedoms of the high seas.
The establishment of the EZ did not bring about a major change in the institutions involved in resource management. The mandates of the Ministry of Fisheries as well as its underlying agencies were modified to reflect the increased geographical mandate area. The Ministry and the Fisheries Directorate has been considerably expanded over the years in response to the increasing demands for resource management. The regulatory framework for the management of fisheries in the Norwegian EZ is extensive, covering the activities of some 8,000 Norwegian fishing vessels and several hundred foreign vessels fishing in Norwegian waters.
The treaty requires Norway to regulate economic activity and protect the environment. It also obliges the authorities not to discriminate between treaty parties when regulating economic activities on the archipelago. Therefore, rather than a fully-fledged EZ, a non-discriminatory Fisheries Conservation Zone was set up in 1978. This borders the Norwegian EZ to the south and the disputed area with Russia to the east. The area has rich fishing grounds and conflicts have arisen over access to the resources there (Churchill and Ulfstein 1992).