By Chun - Zhu Li
During the last decade, huge learn has been performed with regards to coal as one of many world's prime strength resources. the present and destiny prestige of this source is a subject of substantial curiosity to the biggest international economies, together with the united states, Japan, China and Europe.
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Additional info for Advances in the Science of Victorian Brown Coal
A major advantage of this method is that the titration is carried out in an organic solvent in which coal swells and the accessibility of the functional groups is improved. 41 structure and Properties This advantage is however quite limited for brown coals due to their limited swelling in the solvent. This method has been widely used to quantify the acidic groups in coal and coalderived products. However, a recent study by Clemow and Jackson  has signalled the danger of using this method to quantify the acidic groups in coal.
13 (right). More recently, Murakami and co-workers  re-examined the acidity distribution in a set of heat-treated Loy Yang brown coal samples. Rather than assuming the acidity (pKa) in a brown coal to follow a Gaussian distribution as discussed above, they used several Gaussian distributions to describe the acidity distribution . 5 (pH-pK,j (2-20) where A^, is the number of carboxyl groups, a, is the standard deviation. 3 (Group D). Groups A, B, and C are assigned to carboxyl groups while the assignment of Group D is yet unclear.
The development of this method might have posed serious questions about our understanding of the chemistry of high rank coals . Quantification of-OH Groups. Phenolic -OH groups are often quantified from the difference between total acidity and carboxyl content, as was discussed above. Direct -OH quantification can also be carried out by the traditional acetylationhydrolysis method proposed by Blom . Following the esterification by refluxing with acetic anhydride in pyridine Ar,R-OH + V2 (CH3CO)20 -^ CH3C00Ar,R + '^ H2O (R2-8) and the evaporation of solvent, the acetylated sample is saponified with baryta: CH3COOAr,R + V2 Ba(0H)2 -^ Ar,R-OH + V2 Ba(OOCCH3)2 (R2-9) Acidification with phosphoric acid produces acetic acid that can be distilled and quantified: Vi Ba(OOCCH3)2 + V3 H3PO4 -^ 1/6 Ba3(P04)2 + CH3COOH (R2-10) structure and Properties 45 Instead of baryta, Ca(0H)2 can also be used and the acetate can be quantified directly with ion chromatography .