Scientific Popular

Advances in the Science of Victorian Brown Coal by Chun - Zhu Li

By Chun - Zhu Li

During the last decade, huge learn has been performed with regards to coal as one of many world's prime strength resources. the present and destiny prestige of this source is a subject of substantial curiosity to the biggest international economies, together with the united states, Japan, China and Europe.

Show description

Read Online or Download Advances in the Science of Victorian Brown Coal PDF

Best scientific-popular books

Fractals in Soil Science

This ebook offers the state of the art after fifteen years of exponentially starting to be functions of fractal geometry in soil technological know-how. It demonstrates the wide-ranging applicability of fractal types in soil technological know-how and shows new possibilities to combine approaches in soils inside or throughout scales utilizing fractals.

The History of Science and Religion in the Western Tradition - An Encyclopedia

The aim of this quantity is to supply a complete survey of the historic courting of theWestern non secular traditions to technological know-how from the time of the Greeks of the 5th century prior to Christ to thelate 20th century. The editors’ choice to restrict the volume’s insurance to the West displays either ourown specialist backgrounds and our trust that, underlying the variety of the different streams that havefed Western civilization, there exists a simple substratum, shaped through the West’s twin historical past of the classicalworld of Greece and Rome and the monotheistic traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Functional Foods: Concept to Product (Woodhead Publishing in Food Science and Technology)

From getting optimal foodstuff while pregnant to combating osteoporosis within the aged, shopper healthiness cognizance spans all generations. items like calcium-enriched milk with folic acid, cholesterol-reducing margarine, and effort activities bars are filling the grocery cabinets. those "functional meals" are scorching goods for these involved in their nutritional consumption, yet do they dwell as much as the claims, or is it simply one other advertising ploy?

Food, diet and obesity (Woodhead Publishing in Food Science and Technology)

Arguably the main severe factor dealing with the nutrients is what's now widely known as a deadly disease in weight problems. nutrients brands are lower than expanding strain over either the measure to which they've got contributed to the matter and what position they need to play in fixing it. Drawing at the services of a few of the world’s top specialists during this zone, nutrition, vitamin and weight problems summarizes present examine at the motives of weight problems, the position of meals parts in selling or removing extra weight achieve, and the suggestions brands can undertake to lessen the matter.

Additional info for Advances in the Science of Victorian Brown Coal

Sample text

A major advantage of this method is that the titration is carried out in an organic solvent in which coal swells and the accessibility of the functional groups is improved. 41 structure and Properties This advantage is however quite limited for brown coals due to their limited swelling in the solvent. This method has been widely used to quantify the acidic groups in coal and coalderived products. However, a recent study by Clemow and Jackson [89] has signalled the danger of using this method to quantify the acidic groups in coal.

13 (right). More recently, Murakami and co-workers [126] re-examined the acidity distribution in a set of heat-treated Loy Yang brown coal samples. Rather than assuming the acidity (pKa) in a brown coal to follow a Gaussian distribution as discussed above, they used several Gaussian distributions to describe the acidity distribution [126]. 5 (pH-pK,j (2-20) where A^, is the number of carboxyl groups, a, is the standard deviation. 3 (Group D). Groups A, B, and C are assigned to carboxyl groups while the assignment of Group D is yet unclear.

The development of this method might have posed serious questions about our understanding of the chemistry of high rank coals [98]. Quantification of-OH Groups. Phenolic -OH groups are often quantified from the difference between total acidity and carboxyl content, as was discussed above. Direct -OH quantification can also be carried out by the traditional acetylationhydrolysis method proposed by Blom [99]. Following the esterification by refluxing with acetic anhydride in pyridine Ar,R-OH + V2 (CH3CO)20 -^ CH3C00Ar,R + '^ H2O (R2-8) and the evaporation of solvent, the acetylated sample is saponified with baryta: CH3COOAr,R + V2 Ba(0H)2 -^ Ar,R-OH + V2 Ba(OOCCH3)2 (R2-9) Acidification with phosphoric acid produces acetic acid that can be distilled and quantified: Vi Ba(OOCCH3)2 + V3 H3PO4 -^ 1/6 Ba3(P04)2 + CH3COOH (R2-10) structure and Properties 45 Instead of baryta, Ca(0H)2 can also be used and the acetate can be quantified directly with ion chromatography [51].

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.40 of 5 – based on 35 votes