By Bradley J. Undem

Taking a entire technique within which all facets of the vagal afferent approach are thought of, from the terminals within the visceral tissues to the neural pathways in the vital apprehensive approach, this large textual content stories the improvement, neurochemistry, anatomy, biophysics, pharmacology, and body structure of the vagal afferent nerves. The authors current experimental ideas used to enquire the improvement, morphology, electrophysiology and reflex functionality of the vagal afferent nerves, and comprise state of the art studies of vagal afferent neurobiology through many of the world's prime specialists in those fields.

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Ventral and lateral regions of the zebrafish gastrula, including the neural crest progenitors, are established by a bmp2b/swirl pathway of genes, Dev. , 199, 93, 1998. 63. Streit, A. , Establishment and maintenance of the border of the neural plate in the chick: involvement of FGF and BMP activity, Mech. , 82, 51, 1999. 64. Villanueva, S. , Posteriorization by FGF, Wnt, and retinoic acid is required for neural crest induction, Dev. , 241, 289, 2002. fm Page 25 Monday, April 25, 2005 6:38 AM The Embryology of Vagal Sensory Neurons 25 65.

The first (instruction) proposes that neural crest cells emigrate as a homogeneous population of naïve cells that are instructed to differentiate into particular derivatives depending on where they end up. The second (selection) proposes that emigrating neural crest cells are a heterogeneous collection of determined cells that only form particular derivatives and that are eliminated from inappropriate environments. Both are compatible with the heterotopic grafting experiments used to attack the problem of axial fate restriction.

Neurulation, that is, the rolling up of the neural plate to form the neural tube, brings neural crest precursors to the “crest” of the future brain and spinal cord. Neural crest cells subsequently delaminate and migrate throughout the embryo on stereotypical migration pathways. Neural crest cells that form jugular neurons migrate from the postotic hindbrain, at the level of the first three somites. Neural crest cells are induced in three steps: 1. Formation of the neural plate border 2. Posteriorization of the neural plate border and induction of neural crest precursors within it 3.

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