By B. J. Richardson
Inherited enzyme diversifications, studied utilizing electrophoresis, can be utilized as markers for the id of people, inhabitants constitution research, the delineation of species limitations and phytogenetic reconstruction. the aim of this e-book is to explain, in one handy guide, all of the theoretical and useful issues suitable to these aspiring to use electrophoresis as a device for answering such questions.
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Additional info for Allozyme Electrophoresis. A Handbook for Animal Systematics and Population Studies
The range of genetic differences that can act as isolating mechanisms is large. The important point, though, is that allopatric spe ciation should not be viewed as an instantaneous event, but rather that allopatric populations gradually diverge with successful reproduction becom ing progressively more difficult. The point when isolation is effectively reached may be difficult to determine, since behavioural as well as devel opmental factors can be involved (Andrews, 1982). Nevertheless, allozyme electrophoresis provides a relative and objective measure of the extent of genetic divergence that has occurred between allopatric populations.
ALTERNATIVE POPULATION MODELS A population consists of individuals scattered, at various densities, throughout the range of the species. These individuals are not independent but interact in various ways with the environment and with one another. Most importantly, interactions between individuals produce the next gener ation, which is, as a result, the product of historical events occurring before as well as after its initiation. Some of these events affect the genetic structure of the population, and such facts can be used to develop or test ideas about the structure of a population, notably the relationship between groups of animals in different parts of the range of the species.
In such situations, simple discrete subpop ulations do not exist, though it is true that different parts of the population ALLOZYME ELECTROPHORESIS 34 d ) Panmixia (free interchange) Discrete subpopulations (no interchange between subpopulations : f r e e interchange within subpopulations) C ) Isolation by distance (local interchange only) Fig. 1 Diagrammatic representation of the essential difference between the three Tiodels of population structure — a. panmixia, b. discrete subpopulations, and c.