By Plamen Demirev, Todd R. Sandrin
In the final zone century, advances in mass spectrometry (MS) were on the vanguard of efforts to map advanced organic structures together with the human metabolome, proteome, and microbiome. All of those advancements have allowed MS to develop into a well-established molecular point expertise for microorganism characterization. MS has verified its significant virtue as a swift, actual, and most economical process for microorganism identity, in comparison to traditional phenotypic strategies. within the final a number of years, purposes of MS for microorganism characterization in examine, medical microbiology, counter-bioterrorism, meals defense, and environmental tracking were documented in millions of guides. Regulatory our bodies in Europe, the U.S., and in other places have authorized MS-based assays for infectious ailment diagnostics. As of mid-2015, greater than 3300 advertisement MS structures for microorganism id were deployed around the world in hospitals and scientific labs.
While prior paintings has lined broader ways in utilizing MS to symbolize microorganisms on the species point or above, this e-book makes a speciality of strain-level and subtyping purposes. In twelve person chapters, innovators, leaders and practitioners within the box from all over the world have contributed to a finished assessment of present and next-generation methods for MS-based microbial characterization on the subspecies and pressure degrees. Chapters comprise up to date reference lists in addition to web-links to databases, steered software program, and different necessary tools.
The emergence of latest, antibiotic-resistant lines of human or animal pathogens is of remarkable problem not just to the clinical and scientific groups, yet to most people in addition. advancements of novel MS-based assays for quick identity of lines of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms are reviewed within the e-book in addition. Microbiologists, bioanalytical scientists, infectious disorder experts, medical laboratory and public health and wellbeing practitioners in addition to researchers in universities, hospitals, govt labs, and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries will locate this ebook to be a well timed and invaluable source.
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Extra info for Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Microbiology: From Strain Characterization to Rapid Screening for Antibiotic Resistance
1989). Early work on the use of quadrupole-based MS instruments for the analysis of microorganisms focused on the detection of mostly lipid biomarkers like phospholipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (Anhalt and Fenselau 1975; Meuzelaar and Kistemaker 1973; Huff et al. 1986; Goodacre et al. 1998; Boon et al. 1981; Guckert et al. 1986; DeLuca et al. 1992). In addition to using targeted extraction/derivatization protocols, these early investigations also incorporated rapid thermal desorption and/or pyrolysis methods (with EI) to directly analyze intact bacteria in a manner of minutes (DeLuca et al.
Although limited in scope and bacterial species analyzed, this study demonstrated the detection of higher MW proteins using a modified protein extraction protocol and without the use of LC prior to the MS analysis step. ), thus limiting its applicability as a universal detection protocol for known and unknown microbial samples. 1) in order to provide increase specificity to the assay via protein identification. Two examples from the literature will be used to illustrate this approach. In the first report, Hu et al.
2012) while performing the MS analysis in the 2000–20,000 Da mass range. The method relies on the detection of subtle differences between mass spectral profiles of susceptible and resistant strains of the microorganisms, which must be present in the mass spectral database. For example, in the MALDI-MS differentiation of Bacteroides fragilis susceptible and resistant strains to the antibiotic meropenem, no unique signal was associated with resistance, but rather the two groups were discriminated based on the profiles of approximately 10 signals (Wybo et al.