Engineering

ASM Handbook Volume 1: Properties and Selection: Irons, by Rudolf Steiner, American Society for Metals

By Rudolf Steiner, American Society for Metals

A accomplished consultant to compositions, homes, functionality, and choice of solid irons, carbon and low-alloy steels, instrument steels, stainless steels, and superalloys. comprises 1,328 illustrations (photographs, charts, and graphs). greater than 500 tables offer huge info for alloy designations, compositions, and mechanical and actual houses.

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Extra info for ASM Handbook Volume 1: Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys (06181)

Sample text

4, the following metallographic constituents occur. The tip of the wedge is white iron (a mixture of carbide and pearlite) with a hardness greater than 50 HRC. As the iron becomes mottled (a mixture of white iron and gray iron), the hardness decreases sharply. A minimum is reached because of the occurrence of fine type D flake graphite, which usually has associated ferrite in large amounts. With a slightly lower cooling rate, the structure becomes fine type A flake graphite in a pearlite matrix with the hardness rising to another maximum on the curve.

In the first stage, the iron carbide is decomposed in austenite and graphite (Eq 5). In the second stage, the austenite is transformed into pearlite, ferrite, or a mixture of the two. Although there are some compositional differences between ferritic and pearlitic irons, the main difference is in the heat treatment cycle. When ferritic structures are to be produced, cooling rates in the range of 3 to 10 °C/h (5 to 18 °F/h) are required through the eutectoid transformation in the second stage. This is necessary to allow for a complete austenite-to-ferrite reaction.

In sum, the selection of a suitable grade of gray iron for a specific casting necessarily requires an evaluation of the size and shape of the casting as related to its cooling rate, or volume/area ratio. For a majority of parts, this evaluation need be no more than a determination of whether or not the V/A ratio of the casting exceeds the minimum V/A ratio indicated for the grade considered. Reference cited in this section 4. A. W. Kraft, Improved Test Bars for Standard and Ductile Grades of Cast Iron, Trans.

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