The area s most sensible and such a lot accomplished reference advisor to all points of warmth treating. Contents contain: warmth treating of metal quenching, tempering, and annealing, non-stop annealing, quantitative the way to are expecting hardenability. floor Hardening of metal processing and homes of case hardened fabrics. warmth Treating gear emphasis on furnace layout and thermal potency. technique and quality controls issues sensors and oxygen probes for temperature/atmosphere/carbon regulate, statistical strategy keep an eye on. warmth Treating of solid Irons comprises facts on austempered ductile iron and high-alloy irons. warmth Treating Stainless Steels and warmth Resistant Alloys comprises superalloys and refractory metals and alloys. Sections on warmth Treating of instrument Steels and Nonferrous Alloys.
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Additional resources for ASM Handbook: volume 4: Heat Treating (Asm Handbook)
T. Ericsson, S. Sjöström, M. Knuuttila, and B. Hildenwall, Predicting Residual Stresses in Cases, in Case Hardened Steels, Microstructural and Residual Stress Effects, TMS-AIME, 1984 42. B. Hildenwall and T. Ericsson, Residual Stresses in the Soft Pearlite Layer of Carburized Steel, J. , Vol 1, 1980, p 3-13 43. M. Melander, Theoretical and Experimental Study of Stationary and Progressive Induction Hardening, J. , Vol 5, 1985, p 145-166 Introduction HARDENABILITY STEELS, or H-steels, offer a wide range of mechanical properties that depend on the development of tempered martensite after quenching and tempering.
The Grossmann number (H-value) is defined by H = h/2k, where h is the coefficient of heat transfer at the metal-quenchant interface and k is the thermal conductivity. See the article "Quenching of Steel" in this Volume for a more detailed discussion of the Grossmann number. Very often it is stated that a short-lived vapor blanket stage will enhance the hardening result. This is not always correct as has been pointed out by Thelning (Ref 19). The most important consideration is the rate of cooling through the temperature ranges in which the diffusion-dependent transformations take place.
The top graph shows the temperature variation with time at the surface and in the core; the graph below shows the hypothetical thermal stress, a, which is proportional to the temperature difference between the surface and the core, the actual stress at the surface, b, which can never exceed the yield stress, and the actual stress in the core, c. To the right is shown the residual stress distribution after completed cooling as a function of the specimen radius. Source. Ref 33 The added effect of transformation of austenite to martensite in steel is demonstrated in Fig.