Atomic Nuclear Physics

Atoms and Molecules in Intense Fields by L.S. Cederbaum, K.C. Kulander, N.H. March, K. Codling, L.J.

By L.S. Cederbaum, K.C. Kulander, N.H. March, K. Codling, L.J. Frasinski, H. Friedrich, T.F. Gallagher, K.J. Schafer, P.S. Schmelcher

This article is worried with the constitution and bonding of atoms and molecules in excessive fields. subject matters lined comprise: molecules in severe laser fields; field-induced chaos and chaotic scattering; and microwave multiphoton excitation and ionization.

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33)]. g. the scattering cross section) can be used to test the validity of a given ion-atom interaction potential V(r) or screening function U(r). Small scattering angles are of special interest because they are most sensitive to the behavior of V(r), especially at larger distances. All generalized potentials depend smoothly on r and on Z1 and Z2 as well. Therefore, they cannot take into account effects caused by the shell structure of the electron density and by individual features of a given Z1 − Z2 combination.

93) can be performed explicitly by using the P closure relation jnihnj ¼ 1 (unity operator) which provides  2 Z qmax 2Z1 22 dq b S e ðEÞ ¼ 2p 3 ⁄v qmin q h0jCà ½H; CŠj0i: ð1:94Þ 34 K. 92)], only the kinetic part of the Hamilton operator H provides a contribution ½H; CŠ ¼ À Z2  Z2 à À Á ⁄2 X ⁄2 X Dj ; ei q rj ¼ ei q rj q2 À 2i q$j ; 2me j¼1 2me j¼1 where Δj and ∇j are the Laplace operator and the Nabla operator, respectively, acting on the vector rj. 94) reads 2 4 ^e ðEÞ ¼ 4pZ1 2 S me v2 Zqmax qmin  + *  Z2 À Á dq  X iqðrj Àrk Þ 2 q À 2iq$j 0 : 0 e  j;k¼1 q3 ð1:95Þ The main contribution to the integral over q is obtained for k = j because for k 6¼ j the exponential function oscillates around zero which diminishes the value of the integral considerably.

The total energy transferred to all electrons of the target atom is given by 1 Ion-Solid Interaction 17 Z T e ðsÞ ¼ b e ðse Þ with dNðs; se Þ T Z dNðs; se Þ ¼ Z2 ; ð1:40Þ where dN(s, se) is the number of electrons within se and se + dse for a given impact parameter s (of the ion with respect to the nucleus of the target atom) which is determined by the electron density qe. For impact parameters s large compared to the extension of the electron distribution, dN(s, se) is approximately given by b e ðsÞ: With Z2 dðs À se Þdse (d is the delta function) providing Te ðsÞ % Z2 T decreasing s, the transferred energy Te(s) becomes first a bit larger and then slightly b e ðsÞ: The latter case can easily be proved for s = 0 where smaller than Z2 T À Á1=2  R dNð0; se Þ ¼ dse 2 p se dz qe s2e þ z2 has a strong maximum at se = se,cr ( be.

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