Pharmacy

Bioassay by Ralph I. Dorfman (Eds.)

By Ralph I. Dorfman (Eds.)

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47 units per 1 mg. 95 is therefore 4 6 - 2 1 8 % approximately. If an assay like this had unbalanced dosage groups, a n d / o r un­ equal spacing of doses, the calculations would be tedious and the total yield of information less. I t has been stressed a b o v e that this can normally be avoided, and even the loss of one or t w o observations does not prohibit the application of the methods just employed. Missing values can be supplied from the internal evidence of the test, allowance being made for the loss in precision in the estimation of error (Snedecor, 1956; Emmens, 1948).

Differences between days are then eliminated in analysis, while a dif­ ference in the number of animals per group does not affect the w o r k ­ ing in a particular test. Comparisons which can be built up from differences between suc­ cessive responses from the same group are within-animal comparisons, those built up from the sums of successive responses from the same group are between-animal comparisons, with a lower precision. F o r rapid calculation the sums (F) and differences (y) are determined and given suffixes corresponding with their group numbers in T a b l e X.

Further tests showed the advantage of giving only one dose and killing the animals 44 hours later, omitting any later doses, which was the final form of the assay. Another example of factorial analysis, this time at an even earlier stage of investigating a proposed assay technique, is provided b y L a m o n d and Emmens ( 1 9 5 9 ) , when assays using hypophysectomized m i c e were in planning, but p o o r results were being obtained at operation, m a n y of the animals dying within the first 24 hours after their pituitary glands had been removed.

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