Zoology

Biodiversity in the Marine Environment by Philippe Goulletquer

By Philippe Goulletquer

Oceans and seas conceal greater than 70 % of the Earth and carry terribly rich
biodiversity, all the way down to nice depths the place plentiful lifestyles types thrive close to ocean ridges. yet marine biodiversity is still poorly identified and faces a variety of threats. Endangered through ever-increasing pressures from human actions, it's also delicate to climate-based disturbances, specifically their results on ocean acidification.
Contents
1 the significance of Marine Biodiversity
Key Features
Hierarchical Components
The practical importance of Biodiversity
Marine Biodiversity and surroundings Services
2 The affects of Human actions on Marine Biodiversity
The Strategic worth of Research
3 prestige and Trends
How Many Marine Species are There?
Taxonomic Records
Cryptic Species
The DNA Barcode
The force to spot New Species
The “Taxonomic Impediment”
Extinct Species
Endangered Species
Ecosystems stressed: The Deep Sea
Climate Change
Acidification, a “Chemical replicate” of Ocean Warming
Spatial Patterning of Characteristics
Large-Scale Patterns
Local styles (Habitats)
Habitat Classification
Population constitution and Connectivity
Biological Invasions
Temporal Patterns
Geological Scale
Historical Scale
Cascading Effects
Fisheries Trends—Other makes use of of Marine Ecosystems
Dedicated Time Series
4 Conceptualising Biodiversity
Conceptual Frameworks for Relationships among Biodiversity and Human Societies
Choice of version Framework
5 Measuring Biodiversity
Measuring Genetic Diversity
Measuring Species Diversity
Assessing the price of Marine Biodiversity
Analytical equipment proper to the Human Dimensions of
Marine Biodiversity
Methods of Social technology Analysis
Understanding the Human Context
Understanding Human Interactions
Understanding expenses and merits of Biodiversity Protections
Understanding affects of activities to guard Marine Biodiversity
Marine and Coastal Biodiversity symptoms (SINP-Mer together Operated via Ifremer, MNHN and AAMP)
6 Drivers of alterations in Biodiversity and its Uses
Environmental Drivers: A operating Framework
Evolutionary Timescales
Ecological Timescales
Causes of Pressures
Importance of Disturbance: Biodiversity, Resilience and Robustness of Marine Ecosystems
The clinical Challenge
Knowns
Unknowns
Human Drivers
Knowns
Unknowns
Social
Cultural
7 built-in eventualities and Policies
Policies and selection Support
Developing Scenarios
Qualitative studying from earlier Experience
Quantitative studying from prior Experience
Learning from Analytical and Mathematical Reasoning
Learning from digital Experiments (in silico)
Learning through Doing
Quantitative tools, versions and built-in Assessment
Coupling Ecological, Environmental and Socioeconomic Models
Diversity vs. Homogeneity of Models
Modelling: situations and evaluation Challenges
Complex Dynamic Systems
Multi-Criteria Issues
Sustainability and Intergenerational Equity
Precaution, probability research and Management
Adaptive Management
Governance, Coordination and Compliance
8 examine Needs
The Framework: Environmental Research
Research Systems
Sustaining surroundings Services
Naturalistic Dimensions
Linking Ecological capabilities and surroundings Services
Measuring the Genetic foundation of Biodiversity
Differentiating Evolutionary and Ecological Time Scales
Putting Fish shares again of their Ecosystems
Impacts of actual facilities and toxins on Biodiversity
Human Dimensions of Research
Data Issues
Cultures, associations, Appropriation
Demographics and Economics
Decision-Making Processes
Developing Modelling: A Summarising strategy

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Additional info for Biodiversity in the Marine Environment

Example text

Using a model of population dynamics incorporating quantitative genetics, Law and Rowell (1993) conducted the first assessment of the effects of exploitation on body length in North Sea cod and suggested a small selection response after 40 years of exploitation. Subsequent work on fisheries-induced adaptive change has been extensive, showing continuous shifts towards maturation at earlier ages and at smaller sizes (Heino and Dieckmann 2004). These trends correspond to the outcomes predicted by the theory.

Early warning signs of very abrupt changes are appearing in polar regions where water temperature (Levitus et al. 2009) and acidification (Fabry et al. 2009) are increasing twice as fast as in the rest of the world ocean. In the Arctic, this is the case for the not-entirely explained phenomenon of near-surface air temperature, called Arctic amplification, which may be mainly due to sea ice cover shrinking in summer (Screen and Simmonds 2010). From 1979 to 2010, the surface area of Arctic sea ice measured in September dropped by 12 % per decade (compared to its mean extent in 1979–2000).

The arrows’ width indicates the intensity of linkages between ecosystem services and human wellbeing. g. there is a high potential for mediation when it is possible to purchase a substitute for a degraded ecosystem service). (From: MA, Ecosystems and Human Well-being 2005) erally showed slower rates of fished stocks collapse and higher rates of recovery than less diverse marine ecosystems. It is also worth pointing out that the linkages between services and biodiversity cross ecosystem boundaries (Palumbi et al.

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