Can Cars Come Clean? Strategies for Low-Emission Vehicles by Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

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2. g. Euro 3 or equivalent) can be attributed to the following sources: cold start, air-to-fuel ratio (lambda) excursions, effect of ambient temperatures, off-cycle operation and warm conversion of the catalyst. For each of these causes, reductions can be achieved using current technology. If engine efficiencies can be further optimised to deal with these sources of emissions, a reduction of the real-world emissions per vehicle of 85% to 90% for CO, VOC and NOx could be achieved. g. Euro 3, without de-NOx catalysts and particulate filters) can be attributed principally to the following sources: cold start, effect of ambient temperatures, off-cycle operation and warm emissions.

Melse, E. G. Kramers (1999). “An Aggregate Public Health Indicator to Represent the Impact of Multiple Environmental Exposures”, Epidemiology, 10(5), pp. 606-617. ” La Documentation Française, ISBN 2-11-005066-7, Paris. J. (2000), “Driving Style, Fuel Consumption and Tail Pipe Emissions, TNO Automotive, March, Delft. CAN CARS COME CLEAN? - STRATEGIES FOR LOW-EMISSION VEHICLES – ISBN-92-64-10495-X ©OECD 2004 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS – Chapter 3 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Abstract. This chapter describes the relationship between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and the trends in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of individual vehicles.

These improvements have been achieved through the widespread adoption over the last decade of direct injection technology, which was previously only available on heavy-duty applications. The latest trend in diesel technology is the introduction of electronically controlled injection systems, such as common rail and unit injectors, that allow flexible injection timing and rate shaping and also enable much higher pressures. CAN CARS COME CLEAN? 4. Vehicle weight versus fuel consumption, VW Golf VW Golf vehicle parameters 12 80 10 max.

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