By Clair Sawyer, Perry McCarty, Gene Parkin
This can be the definitive textual content in a industry along with senior and graduate environmental engineering scholars who're taking a chemistry direction. The textual content is split right into a chemistry basics part and a bit on water and wastewater research. during this new version, the authors have retained the thorough, but concise, assurance of simple chemical rules from common, actual, equilibrium, natural, biochemistry, colloid, and nuclear chemistry. moreover, the authors have retained their vintage two-fold procedure of (1) concentrating on the points of chemistry which are quite worthy for fixing environmental difficulties, and (2) laying the basis for realizing water and wastewater analysis-a basic foundation of environmental engineering perform and learn
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Additional resources for Chemistry for environmental engineering and science
Free electrons cannot occur in solution. A complete reaction is made by adding one half reaction to the reverse of another. For example, Eq. 4. Reaction 15 Reverse of reaction 14 |I03" + |H + + e~ = £l 2 + |H 2 0 I~ = |l 2 + e~ Sum X5 to give Eq. 4 will be discussed later in Sec. 10. A great number of oxidation-reduction reactions of interest in water chemistry can be produced through combinations of the half reactions listed. Additional half reactions can be readily developed as follows, using for illustration I2 as the reduced species and ICÇ as the oxidized species for iodine.
2) •': :- ¿ „ ••'xinJ¡ií¿: 'ir": '^rr':rr fHga ' 1 = ^ - S — - = -r->V- , - 5 . 0 I 6 M i ' " ' i : ••^ ; :r : K - - : S From Eq. From Èq. '. 33(10-- li, Xi0- 3 )=>3 X'K)~ ,3 M. These calculations indicate that most of the mercury in natural waters occurs as the neu- . 'trat•HgCl2(B0:speçie5; Little of the mercury occurs in ionized forms The sofptivebehavior of metals is significantly affected by complexatkm, pH, and charge, as well as the nahireof theîâdsorbent:(sQlid). Additional details are given in Sees.
4. An atom, molecule, or ion is said to undergo oxidation when it loses an electron, and to undergo reduction when it gains an electron. With reference to Fig. 1, when sodium reacts with chlorine to form sodium chloride, the sodium atom loses an electron and becomes oxidized to the sodium ion, Na+. Chloride gains an electron and is reduced to the anion, Cl". When oxidation-reduction reactions occur between atoms to form molecules or ions with polar covalent bonds, certain assumptions are required in order to maintain a consistent concept.