By Jeroen Claes
The current quantity attempts to reply to the query: What constrains morphosyntactic version? via studying the variable contract of presentational haber (´there to be`) in Caribbean Spanish with complex statistical instruments and theoretical constructs of Cognitive Sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and variationist sociolinguistics, it proposes an leading edge theoretical version of the restrictions that govern morphosyntactic version.
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Additional info for Cognitive, Social, and Individual Constraints on Linguistic Variation
It appears to be less frequent with the preterit (hubo, hubieron) and, especially, the present tense (hay, hayn), for which DeMello (1991: 460) only documents the non-agreeing forms. For preterit hubieron, research in Venezuela suggests that its less frequent use may be due to social stigma (Freites-Barros 2003, 2004; Malaver 1999). The agreeing present tense, which is usually transcribed as hayn, haen, or hain, is also stigmatized. Still, these forms have been documented in Antillean (Holmquist 2008: 28; Vaquero 1996: 64), Antioquian Colombian (Montes-Giraldo 1982: 384), Argentinean (Kany 1951: 256–257), and Venezuelan Spanish (Lapesa 1981: §133; Navarro-Correa 1992: 98).
3). Therefore, he calls for investigations that “address this issue by observing the interaction between the pluralization of haber and factors such as speech style, social class, sex, and age” (Díaz-Campos 2003: 11). Tab. 2: Linguistic predictors considered by Díaz-Campos (2003) Predictors Examples Reference of the noun phrase Human Habían profesores. ’ Nonhuman No había edificios. ’ Reinforcement of the idea of plurality Not reinforced Habían profesores. ’ Reinforced by an adjective Habían buenos proyectos.
2: Linguistic predictors considered by Díaz-Campos (2003) Predictors Examples Reference of the noun phrase Human Habían profesores. ’ Nonhuman No había edificios. ’ Reinforcement of the idea of plurality Not reinforced Habían profesores. ’ Reinforced by an adjective Habían buenos proyectos. ’ Reinforced by coordination of nouns Habían hornos de cal, alfarería y cuestiones. ’ Reinforced by a determiner Habían otros grupos. ’ Reinforced by a determiner and an Habían unos árboles grandes. ’ Verb tense Source: Examples taken from Díaz-Campos (2003: 5–6) D’Aquino-Ruiz (2004) studies a larger sample from the same corpus as Díaz-Campos (2003)7.