Nonfiction 1

Color Blood Flow Imaging of the Heart by Dierk A. Redel

By Dierk A. Redel

Just a truly few years after Edler and Hertz had defined the scientific use of M-mode echocardiographyl Satomura pronounced the appliance of Dop­ 2 pler ultrasound to the examine of cardiac functionality. but Doppler ultrasound has been built-in into diagnostic perform in cardiology even more slowly than traditional (M-mode and two-dimensional) echocardiogra­ phy. Now, although, large progress within the curiosity of clinicians within the diagnostic use of Doppler ultrasound should be saw and will in reality be as a result contemporary introduction of colour circulation imaging. the cause of this progress could be that this technique makes it attainable to at once visualize the blood circulation within the cardiovascular procedure in cross-sectional perspectives. furthermore, the implications are reproducible and lots more and plenty more uncomplicated to appreciate than the older mapping concepts utilizing a single-gate Doppler. In its brief life many various names were used to explain this system, for example, colour Doppler, colour move imaging, real-time two-dimen­ sional Doppler echocardiography, and Doppler stream imaging. This diver­ sity displays the big curiosity that many researchers have proven during this process. The technical improvement of colour blood stream imaging (CBFI) - as this technique should be referred to as during this ebook - has no longer but reached a universally permitted regular of functionality in cardiology. regardless of this nation of flux and the uncertainty approximately destiny advancements, i believe it truly is justified to commit a whole booklet to this interesting method.

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2) to show the dependency of interatrial shunt patterns on ventricular compliance. 9 shows shunts at the atrial and ventricular levels occurring at the same time. In Fig. 9a, left-to-right shunts across an ASD I, an ASD II (red areas between left and right atria) and simultaneously through a ventricular septal defect (red area in right ventricle) can be seen in late systole. 9b shows a left-to-right shunt through an ASD I (red area in left and right atria immediately above the atrioventricular valve level) and at the same time a right-to-Ieft shunt (blue area in right and left ventricles immediately below the atrioventricular valves) across an atrioventricular ventricular septal defect in a case of endocardial cushion defect, triggered in late systole.

The large flow area in early diastole indicates a strongly increased systemic venous backflow from the upper half of the body, which is especially impressive if compared with the normal flow condition in Fig. 34. This is suggestive of a supracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection and accompanied by right ventricular volume load. The anomalous drainage of pulmonary veins can also be visualized directly using CBFI [61]. 8 c shows the infradiaphragmatic drainage site in total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage into the portal vein.

Fig. 4 a, b Normal time sequence of mitral blood flow velocities, RBG2. The biphasic filling pattern of the left ventricle is clearly visible. In late diastole, immediately before the atrial filling period, a short phase of "diastolic regurgitation" can be seen. The left ventricular outflow is filled with blood flowing towards the aortic root, this flow movement is continued uninterruptedly into systole. a M/ Q-mode with 2D color insert b M / Q-mode and FFf single gate trace together with 2D color insert.

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