Language Grammar

Complementation: Its Meaning and Forms by Evelyn N. Ransom

By Evelyn N. Ransom

This ebook provides a degree within the evolution of a thought of modality meanings and varieties. It covers completely enhances. There are questions that this booklet addresses. Can one discover a small, finite set of meanings which systematically underlies the large number of meanings present in enhances? and will one make any predictions from this set of meanings concerning the number of varieties they take? the reply to either questions is certain. the writer convincingly indicates how a multiplicity of sentence meanings and types should be accounted for through breaking down sentence that means right into a small set of modules and howing how those modules mix to precise definite meanings and the way supplement types are on the topic of them and their combos.

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The Action Modality also has a restriction on the time reference and the aspect of the complement act. Because the act is directed either by oneself or by another, the time of the act cannot precede the time of the direction, and in most cases, it must be future to it: (37) a. Andy told Dan to leave tomorrow /* yesterday. b. Andy permitted Dan to leave tomorrow /* yesterday.  Andy decided to leave tomorrow /* yesterday. In these sentences, the leaving has to take place after the telling, permitting, or deciding; it can not take place before that, or even at the same time.

Hal is eager for Millie to play chess soon 36 COMPLEMENTATION: ITS MEANINGS AND FORMS  Hal is eager for Millie to be playing chess soon The perfect aspect is possible with both finite and nonfinite forms, but only with a future perfect meaning, where the complement predicate must have a future time reference which precedes another future time reference, as shown in the examples below: (12) a. George anticipates that Terri will have played chess before noon b. George aniticipates that Terri's going to have played chess before noon  George's eager for Terri to have played chess before noon d.

B.  d. e. Ed forced them to perform the act of leaving Ed urged them to perform the act of leaving Ed decided to perform the act of leaving Ed was able to perform the act of leaving Ed wondered whether to perform the act of leaving (28) a. b. c. d. e. *Ed forced it to be true/come true/occur that they left *Ed urged it to be true/come true/ occur that they left *Ed decided for it to be true/come true/occur that they left *It was easy for it to be true/come true/ occur that they left *Ed wondered whether for it to be true/come true/occur that they left The interpretation of these complements as voluntary, controllable acts means that there are restrictions on the types of predicates that can occur in the complement.

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