By Akihiro Abe, Karel Dusˇek, Shiro Kobayashi, B. Améduri, B. Boutevin, P. Czub, P. Penczek, J. Pielichowski, M.A. Rodríguez-Pérez, A. Taguet
Content material: Unsaturated polyester resins : chemistry and know-how / P. Penczek, P. Czub, J. Pielichowski -- Crosslinked polyolefin foams : creation, constitution, homes, and functions / M.A. Rodriguez-Perez -- Crosslinking of vinylidene fluoride-containing fluoropolymers / A. Taguet, B. Ameduri, B. Boutevin
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Extra resources for Crosslinking In Materials Science
It was found that the morphology of crosslinked FUPRs was strongly affected by the curing rate and by a critical balancing of the ﬂuorinated macromer/poly(ε-caprolactone) (TX/PCL) ratio and the molecular weight of the TXCL copolymers. A slight plasticization effect was observed by increasing the molecular weight and the PCL segment length of the TXCL copolymers . On the other hand, the best toughening effect of the TXCL copolymers was found for an intermediate TX/PCL ratio. Moreover, a signiﬁcant reduction of the water diffusion coefﬁcient value for FUPRs was shown.
Penczek et al. 85 ppm (trans, broad singlet) and in Table 26, where the typical 1 H-NMR signals in spectra of polyesters are presented. The maleate (cis)-fumarate (trans) isomerism in dicarboxy diesters and UPs from maleic anhydride and various diols (propylene glycol, propylene oxide and propoxylated bisphenol A) was studied by 1 H (300 MHz) and 13 C (75 MHz) nuclear magnetic spectroscopy with tetramethylsilane (TMS) as an internal standard . The cis-trans isomerism and the presence of fumarate unsaturation sites play a key role in determining the physical and chemical properties of the crosslinked UPRs, owing to a higher reactivity of the trans isomer in copolymerization with vinyl monomers.
The effect of additives: glass and carbon ﬁber, silica, carbon black, metal oxide ﬁre retardants, smoking suppressants, and lubricants was investigated. Smoke emission (optical density of smoke) during combustion of cured UPRs can be decreased by using additives . MoO3 , zinc borate or waterevolving additives [Al(OH)3 , Mg(OH)2 and SnO2 ] are suitable. The smoke decreasing efﬁciency of the additives in brominated UPRs depends on the combustion temperature. MoO3 is efﬁcient at high temperature (700 ◦ C), whereas zinc borate and SnO2 are efﬁcient at a low temperature of pyrolysis (300–400 ◦ C).