Dimension Stone Use in Building Construction by Ed. by Kurt R. Hoigard and Michael J. Scheffler.

By Ed. by Kurt R. Hoigard and Michael J. Scheffler.

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A darkening of the stone along expansion joints, a patchy darkening, and a grayish discoloration are signs that resident subsurface water is penetrating the stone from the base up. Very little water, if any, penetrates through the stone from the surface. While it is subsurface ͑mostly in the screed, mortar bed, or adhesive͒ the water is accumulating dissolved calcium and iron compounds. These substances ͑among others͒ are then drawn through the stone by the thermal “engine” causing reaction and remobilization of chemically susceptible and unstable minerals en route to the surface where they precipitate.

The location of a project immediately adjacent to the waterfront means that there is an inevitability that some salt is carried from the sea to the stone paving. Because of its solubility, salt is carried in solution into the pores of the bonding media where it has the opportunity to buildup and concentrate. Although it is unlikely that in isolation it has had a significant impact on the strength and integrity of the mortars and adhesive, it can contribute to an accelerated degradation of these bonding media once there is ready ingress of water through hairline fractures or failures in the stone.

However, adhesive HENSEL ON PAVING DESIGN 33 manufacturers are providing assurances that their products are capable, indeed designed, to accommodate the shrinkage of the slab even during the early periods of maximum shrinkage. It is widely recognized that 30 % shrinkage will occur in the first 28 days, about 50– 60 % over the first three to four months, and the remainder over the remaining year. It is also recognized that thick slabs ͑180– 300 mm͒ take longer to cure ͑and longer to shrink͒ than thinner slabs.

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