By Albert D. Wheelon

A major reference paintings for researchers in optics, astronomy, physics and electric engineering.

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**Example text**

The spectral width of the inertial range increases with the Reynolds number. This prediction was confirmed by precise meteorological measurements over more than three orders of magnitude [13]. One can also use dimensional analysis to estimate the inner scale length which marks the start of the dissipation region. 148 cm2 s−1 in air at the earth’s surface. 60) It provides a fundamental unit of length for the turbulence process. 61) where the constant was determined experimentally. The inner scale is a few millimeters near the surface and probably increases with altitude as does viscosity.

The basic problem is that of discovering how random velocity components are generated by laminar flow and how they evolve once they have been created. 53) v(r, t) + [ v(r, t) . ∇ ] v(r, t) = ν ∇2 v(r, t) ∂t The velocity v(r, t) is found to be a random function of position and time. Also, it is usually assumed that the flow is incompressible: ∇ . 54) A constant-velocity component has been removed from both equations with a linear transformation. 53) and is proportional to the kinematic viscosity ν.

The problem has been separated into two distinct modules. The medium is completely described by the turbulence spectrum Φn (κ). The weighting function characterizes all electromagnetic features of the propagation. In combination they generate a complete description of the measured quantity. The two modules are coupled through the wavenumber integration. The choice of a model for the random medium is thereby postponed to the last step. It need be made only after all other features of the propagation have been carefully analyzed.