By T.H. Bullock, A. Fessard, R.H. Hartline, A.J. Kalmijn, P. Laurent, R.W. Murray, H. Scheich, E. Schwartz, T. Szabo
The originality of this quantity is to bare to the reader the fascination of a few unexpected sensory organs which are occasionally neglected and infrequently misunderstood. those receptors have only in the near past been pointed out and their sensible specificity is occasionally nonetheless a question for dialogue. The 4 sessions of sensory organs thought of right here vary largely from each other in lots of respects. One may well even say that the single factor they've got in universal is they belong to cold-blooded vertebrates. those periods are: 1. the directionally delicate lateral-line mechanoreceptors of fishes and amphi bians (Chapter 7); 2. the pseudobranchial organs of a few teleosts, built with pressoreceptors and at the very least 3 different forms of receptors (osmo- and chemoreceptors) (Chapter 8); three. the infrared-sensitive pit organs of a few snake households (Chapter nine) ; four. a number of the sorts of electroreceptors present in a number of marine and freshwater fish households (Chapters 2 to 6). the 1st 3 sessions of receptors pointed out above therefore price just one bankruptcy every one, while 5 chapters are dedicated to the electroreceptors. Electroreception has aroused huge, immense curiosity between physiologists in specialties starting from molecular biology to animal habit. The ensuing volume of analysis and dialogue absolutely justifies this disproportion. besides the fact that, it can't be denied that the contents of the quantity needs to look unbalanced and heterogeneous, but it may now not be perceived as an insignificant juxtaposition of specific and unrelated cases.
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Additional info for Electroreceptors and Other Specialized Receptors in Lower Vertrebrates
The number of receptor cells per organ varies approximately between 1 and 35 in mormyrids (QUINET, 1971) and between 10 and 100 in gymnotids (SZABO, 1965). 7C) and type II (Fig. 7B) organs (SZABO, 1965; SRIVASTAVA and SZABO, 1972). A particularly large number of cells (80-100) characterizes type IIB tuberous organs of low- and medium-frequency gymnotids (Figs. 7F and 3D) which are disposed in the trunk in several rows parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fish (SZABO, 1965; SZAMIER and WACHTEL, 1970).
Only a small proportion of the sensory cells at the level of the finger-like invagination remain free and in contact with the epidermal cavity through a small and short duct (Fig. 17 A). The aC I cells are surrounded by two kinds of accessory cells aC 2 and aC a which extend between the sensory cavity and the basement membrane (Figs. 17 A and 200). Fig. 18. A, tangential section of the skin surface passing through a gymnarchomast type II with 13 sensory units. Gymnarehu8 nilotieu8. Note the large number of sensory cells 8e.
LOA), the rest of the basal cell membrane being in contact with certain supporting cells (see below: "Accessory structures"). In both gymnotids and mormyrids, tight junctions between receptor and supporting cells delineate the circumference of the basal sensory-cell membrane. The area where the presynaptic (sensory-cell) and the postsynaptic (nerveending) membranes are juxtaposed is characterized on the sensory-cell side by an electron-dense body (Fig. IOA-O, F) with either a club-shaped or a rod-like form (Fig.