By Alasdair H. Neilson
Addressing the continual environmental risk of natural chemical compounds with a clean method of degradation and transformation techniques, Environmental Degradation and Transformation of natural chemical substances examines a variety of compounds in addition to abiotic and microbiological reactions mediated through microorganisms. The ebook emphasizes the pathways used and the huge periods of enzymes concerned. It presents an summary of experimental approaches with certain insurance of the natural compounds which are thought of to be xenobiotics. The ebook starts by means of supplying a vast standpoint on abiotic and biotic reactions, together with the importance of a number environmental determinants. the subsequent chapters in brief introduce experimental systems and emphasize these strategies for setting up the constitution of metabolites utilizing isotopes and actual equipment. subsequent, the authors define info of biochemical reactions desirous about the biodegradation of the key teams of aliphatic, carbocyclic fragrant, and heterocyclic compounds. They finish with assurance of bioremediation that has attracted expanding quandary as a result threat awarded via the disposal of undesirable chemical substances or by-products from their manufacture. huge and complete, this publication offers a cohesive remedy of the topic. It includes an in depth set of literature references and various illustrative figures. The authors use a mechanistic method with emphasis at the pathways, and the rules that emerge supply a consultant not just for particular compounds but additionally for these having a extra distant structural resemblance.
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Extra info for Environmental degradation and transformation of organic chemicals
18) from the oxidation of phenanthrene in the presence of NOx and methyl nitrite as a source of hydroxyl radicals (Helmig et al. 1992a). These compounds have been identified in samples of ambient air (Helmig et al. 1992b), and analogous compounds from pyrene have been tentatively identified (Sasaki et al. 1995). indd 20 Product from the photochemical reaction of phenanthrene and NOx. 6/8/2007 2:27:10 PM Abiotic Reactions 21 comparable reactions are involved in the formation of the 1,6- and 1,8-dinitroarenes that have been identified in diesel exhaust.
The decomposition of perfluorocarboxylic acids (C4 –C8) in the presence of the sulfate radical anion produced photochemically from persulfate (S2O82−) in the presence of oxygen resulted in the production of F−, CO2, and shorter-chain perfluoro fatty acids (Hori et al. 2005a). To facilitate mixing of the poorly water-soluble perfluorocarboxylic acids, the reaction has been carried out in a two-phase aqueous/liquid CO2 system (Hori et al. 2005b). High rates of degradation were observed for C9–C11 substrates, with the formation of fluoride, and only minor production of shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids.
Reactions of alkylperoxy radicals with NOx R–O–O + NO → R–O + NO2 R–O–O + NO → R–O–NO2 4. indd 15 6/8/2007 2:27:08 PM 16 Environmental Degradation and Transformation of Organic Chemicals The concentration of NO determines the relative importance of reaction 3, and the formation of NO2 is particularly significant since this is readily photolyzed to produce O(3P) that reacts with oxygen to produce ozone. This alkane–NOx reaction may produce O3 at the troposphere–stratosphere interface: NO2 → NO + O(3P); O(3P) + O2 → O3 This is the main reaction for the formation of ozone although, under equilibrium conditions, the concentrations of NO2, NO, and O3 are interdependent and no net synthesis of O3 occurs.