Agriculture

Food Industries Manual by M. D. Ranken, R. C. Kill, C. Baker (auth.), M. D. Ranken, R.

By M. D. Ranken, R. C. Kill, C. Baker (auth.), M. D. Ranken, R. C. Kill, C. Baker (eds.)

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32 FOOD INDUSTRIES MANUAL seen, both of which can be correlated with the freshness of the egg. In commercial hatcheries it is usual to give the eggs a preliminary incubation for 7 days, then candle them to check their quality before transferring them to other incubators for the remainder of the incubation period. At this stage it is possible to identify infertile eggs by the absence of embryo development, and to reject them from the hatchery. The use of these 'incubator clears' for human food is now prohibited in the EU and many other countries.

In filling it is usual to raise the pastry in the cans first, followed by filling the meat and gravy and sealing with the top section of pastry prior to exhausting and can closing. Some pies are formulated with top pastry only. Processes need careful evaluation since heat penetration through pastry is slow. Stewed steak This pack is often all meat, except for salt and possibly curing salts, or it may be canned as stewed steak in gravy. Beef sides are usually hung for about 24 h to give a firmer meat for boning out and trimming, with the separated materials being conveyed to different by-product departments for treatment.

There is evidence of consumer demand for milder flavoured, moister products, which may also presumably be cheaper. In most countries now there are regulations which either prescribe exactly which products may be made and sold, or lay down the names under which products of different moisture content must be described and other information which must be declared. Picnic hams, shoulders, and so on These are cooked cured pork products in which more of fewer small pieces of meat are formed into a solid, integral, sliceable whole by the use of massaging before cooking, then cooking after packing tightly into moulds or casings.

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