Agriculture

Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Sunflower by Jinguo Hu, Gerald Seiler, C. Kole

By Jinguo Hu, Gerald Seiler, C. Kole

The sunflower has interested mankind for hundreds of years. The oilseed sunflower contributes approximately ten percentage of the world’s plant-derived suitable for eating oil and the confection style sunflower holds a substantial percentage of the without delay fed on snacks marketplace. moreover, sunflower is usually grown as a decorative for minimize flora, in addition to in domestic gardens. we're now embarking at the age of genomics as a way to expedite the method of genetic development of vegetation. there was an explosion of data on genetic markers, DNA sequences, and genomic assets for many significant meals plants together with sunflower. This quantity is meant to bridge conventional examine with smooth molecular investigations on sunflower.

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The stigma appears at about the 1700 hour of the same day, and by the following morning it is fully emerged, with receptive surfaces exposed. At this time, the staminal filaments lose turgidity and the anther tube begins to recede into the corolla. 1 stage of sunflower development (Schneiter and Miller 1981). One to four rows of disk flowers open successively daily for 5 to 10 days. The flowering period Basic Information 17 is prolonged if heads are larger, or if the weather is cool and cloudy.

Mollis (Georgieva-Todorova et al. 1974), H. salicifolius (Georgieva-Todorova and Lakova 1978), hybrids of H. annuus x H. hirsutus (Georgieva-Todorova and Bohorova 1980), H. hirsutus and H. decapetalus (Georgieva-Todorova and Bohorova 1979), cultivated H. annuus (Al-Allaf and Godward 1977), and 12 Helianthus species (Kulshreshtha and Gupta 1981). In general, Georgieva-Todorova and Bohorova (1979, 1980) reported large chromosome sizes, with more chromosomes classified as m and sm, and 2 to 4 satellited chromosomes.

Ray flowers are normally sterile, having a rudimentary pistil and vestigial style and stigma, but no anther. Mutants occur producing more than the normal numbers of ray flowers, or occasionally none. The remaining flowers covering the large discoidal head are called disk flowers. A single disk flower is often referred to as a floret. Each floret is subtended by a sharp-pointed, chaffy bract, a basal ovary, and two pappus scales (often considered being a modified sepal). The disk flower is perfect (contains both a stamen and pistil).

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