By Gerard J. Docherty, D. Robert Ladd
Laboratory phonology makes use of speech information to investigate questions about the summary express constructions of phonology. This selection of papers largely addresses 3 such questions: What constructions underlie the temporal coordination of articulatory gestures? what's the right function of segments and lines in phonological description? and What structures--hierarchical or otherwise--relate morphosyntax to prosody? so one can motivate the interdisciplinary knowing required for development during this box, all of the 3 teams of papers is preceded via an academic paper (commissioned for this quantity) on theories and findings presupposed by way of a few or all the papers within the team. moreover, many of the papers are via commentaries, written by means of famous researchers in phonetics and phonology, which serve to carry very important theoretical and methodological concerns into point of view. lots of the fabric gathered here's in response to papers provided on the moment convention on Laboratory Phonology in Edinburgh, 1989. the quantity is a sequel to Kingston and Beckman (eds.): Papers in Laboratory Phonology I additionally released by way of Cambridge collage Press.
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Additional info for Gesture, Segment, Prosody (Papers in Laboratory Phonology II)
A strategy that has been used is to specify the phase in one gesture with respect to which a second gesture is coordinated. The 17 Gesture definition of phase for these purposes has involved the concept of phase space - a two-dimensional space in which velocity and displacement are the coordinates (Kelso and Tuller 1984). Phase space allows a phase to be assigned to any kind of movement, but for movements that are essentially sinusoidal, phase has its traditional meaning. So, for example, starting a second gesture at 180 degrees in the sinusoidal movement cycle of a first gesture would mean that the second one began when the first had just completed half of its full cycle.
In the examples we will be examining, the blending will have the effect of averaging the parameter values. Thus, if both gestures were coextensive for their entire 30 2 Catherine P. Browman and Louis Goldstein activation intervals, neither target value would be achieved, rather, the value of the tract variable at the end would be the average of their targets. In this paper, our strategy is to analyze movements of the tongue in utterances with schwa to determine if the patterns observed provide evidence for a specific schwa tongue target.
G. the degree of casualness) and, indirectly, the overall rate of speech. The discussion so far has described how movement starts - by the gestural score feeding the task-dynamic model with information about gestural targets, stiffnesses, and relative timing - but what causes a movement to stop has not been mentioned. There is no direct command 18 1 Sarah Hawkins given to stop the movement resulting from a gesture. The gestural score specifies that a gesture is either activated, in which case controlled movement towards the target is initiated, or else not activated.