By Lilian H. Zirpolo
Starting within the 1580s and finishing as overdue as 1750 in a few Northern ecu areas, the Baroque inventive period begun as an inventive draw back to the stylizations of Mannerist artwork and as a method of implementation of the calls for of the Counter-Reformation Church that sought to revive its spiritual preeminence within the Western international within the face of the Protestant risk. consequently, Rome, the seat of the papacy, turned the cradle of Baroque artwork, and masters from different components of the Italian peninsula flocked to the quarter within the hopes of acquiring inventive commissions.
The Historical Dictionary of Baroque artwork and Architecture relates the heritage of the Baroque period via a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 500 cross-referenced dictionary entries on such icons as Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, Diego Velázquez, Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt van Rijn, and Johannes Vermeer, in addition to sculptors, architects, buyers, different ancient figures, and occasions.
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Additional resources for Historical Dictionary of Baroque Art and Architecture
1704 Italy: Andrea Pozzo is invited to Vienna by Emperor Leopold I. There, he creates his ceiling fresco depicting the Triumph of Hercules in the Liechtenstein Palace (1704-1708) for Prince Johann Adam Andreas von Liechtenstein. 1705 Spain: Antonio Palomino works on the Triumph of the Church Militant and the Church Triumphant in the Church of San Esteban, Salamanca. 1706 France: Antoine Coysevox renders the bust portrait of Marie Serre. Italy: Andrea Pozzo designs the altar to the Franziskanerkirche, Vienna.
To curtail the spread of Protestantism and rectify the problems that had caused it, Pope Paul III convoked the Council of Trent in 1545, its purpose to clarify Catholic dogma and eliminate abuses related to Church administration. The council forbade the sale of indulgences, the fuel that had prompted Martin Luther to break with the Church. In response to Lutheran criticism of the greed exhibited by bishops, absenteeism, pluralism, and excessive benefices were also abolished. Prior to the council, bishops were granted more than one episcopal see that came with generous benefices and could be passed down from one generation to another.
The Holy Office of the Inquisition consisted INTRODUCTION • 5 of tribunals used to prosecute individuals accused of sorcery, blasphemy, and deviating from Christian practices. It first consisted of six cardinals appointed by the pope, but later the number increased to 13. Theologians and experts in canon law were part of the advisory board, while the preliminary inquiries into each case were conducted by vicari foranei, usually parish priests. It was in 1557 that Paul IV, who ascended to the papal throne in 1555, established the Index of Forbidden Books (Index Librorum Prohibitorum), the censoring body functioning under the Holy Office of the Inquisition.