By Bikash Pandey
Providing crucial conception and necessary sensible suggestions for imposing hydroelectric initiatives, this e-book outlines the assets, energy iteration applied sciences, functions, and strengths and weaknesses for hydroelectric applied sciences. Emphasizing the hyperlinks among strength and the surroundings, it serves as an invaluable history source and allows decision-making relating to which renewable power know-how works most sensible for various different types of purposes and areas. together with examples, real-world case reports, and classes discovered, each one bankruptcy comprises workout questions, references, and plentiful pictures and technical drawings from genuine micro hydropower plants.
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Additional resources for Hydroelectric energy: renewable energy and the environment
For micro hydro electric power plants with turbines manufactured at local workshops, the efficiency may be as low as 60%. egenerator is the efficiency of the generator. For medium and large hydropower plants, the generator efficiency can be over 95% whereas for micro hydroelectric power plants the efficiency could be lower, for example, 70%–90%. etransformer is the efficiency of the transformer. Based on size of the transformer, the efficiency can vary between 95% and 98%. Thus, at the transformer end, the overall efficiency takes into account individual efficiencies of the penstock pipe, turbine, generator, and transformer.
In case the gravel trap and the set tling basin are located at some distance from each other, the headrace slope from the intake to the gravel trap should be steeper than that between the gravel trap and the settling basin. Gravel trap and settling basins in micro or mini hydroelectric power plants are often built using stone masonry in cement mortar. However, as the required size of these structures increases, rein forced concrete becomes the preferred choice. Spillways can be gated, generally for larger power plants, or ungated.
In the absence of flow records, a minimum of one flow measurement per month for at least one year should be performed close to the proposed intake area so that the installed capacity can be finalized and the energy generation can be reliably estimated. Various flow measurement methods pertinent to micro hydropower projects are described herein. 2 fLow MeasureMenTs usinG a conducTiviTy MeTer A conductivity meter measures the amount of electrical current or conductance in a solution. 7). After the probe is placed in the liquid to be measured, the meter applies voltage between two electrodes inside the probe.