Introduction to addictive behaviors by Dennis L. Thombs PhD FAAHB, Cynthia J. Osborn PhD

By Dennis L. Thombs PhD FAAHB, Cynthia J. Osborn PhD

Now in a revised and improved 3rd variation, this generally followed textual content deals a balanced evaluation of significant modern views on substance abuse and dependancy. completely up-to-date chapters deal with ailment versions; psychoanalytic, conditioning, cognitive, and relations structures formulations; and social and cultural foundations. new chapters on prevention versions and comorbidity develop the volume's scope. Written in a lucid, available type, the 3rd version is grounded within the most recent conception and examine. purposes to the aiding procedure are emphasised and studying is facilitated with case examples, evaluation questions, and end-of-chapter summaries.

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Of course, MZ twins are always of the same gender. DZ twins may be of different genders, and are no more alike (in terms of genetic makeup) than any two siblings. In twin studies, concordance rates are determined for a specific characteristic or trait. A “concordance rate” is the degree of similarity between the twins in each pair in a series on any given characteristic. The greater concordance between MZ twins, as compared to DZ twins, is taken as evidence of the degree of genetic determination for a characteristic.

Drugs of abuse alter the cellular activity of neurons that use dopamine and other neurotransmitters. For instance, cocaine blocks the “reuptake” or reabsorption of dopamine by the neurons (brain cells) that release it (Leshner, 1996). , smoking crack cocaine). , 1998). Though it is not clear that this is the The Disease Models 41 basis for “nondrug addictions,” such as gambling, advances in neuroscience will continue to encourage such speculation. Recent rat research suggests that serotonin, another neurotransmitter, also may be implicated in cocaine’s activation of the mesolimbic system.

East Asians) will have lower rates of alcoholism, because the flushing is an aversive consequence that discourages heavy drinking. As a result, members of these groups will not abuse alcohol because of this uncomfortable reaction when ethanol is consumed. , Native Americans) will be very susceptible to alcoholism, because the high levels of acetaldehyde cause tolerance to alcohol to increase. Clearly, alcohol elimination cannot be used to explain alcoholism etiology in opposite directions. Schwitters, Johnson, McClearn, and Wilson (1982) comment on these studies: “Once persons drink at all, whether flushing occurs following the use of alcohol has only a trivial effect on drinking behavior” (p.

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