Atomic Nuclear Physics

Introduction to Radiological Physics Radiation Dosimetry by Frank Herbert Attix

By Frank Herbert Attix

A simple presentation of the huge suggestions underlying radiological physics and radiation dosimetry for the graduate-level scholar. Covers photon and neutron attenuation, radiation and charged particle equilibrium, interactions of photons and charged debris with topic, radiotherapy dosimetry, in addition to photographic, calorimetric, chemical, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. contains many new derivations, equivalent to Kramers X-ray spectrum, in addition to themes that experience no longer been completely analyzed in different texts, reminiscent of broad-beam attenuation and geometrics, and the reciprocity theorem. topics are layed out in a logical series, making the themes more straightforward for college students to keep on with. Supplemented with a number of diagrams and tables.

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Sample text

The energy transferred in a volume Vis: where (Rin)" = radiant energy of uncharged particles entering V, ( R O U r )= ~ rradiant energy of uncharged particles leaving V, except that which originated from radiative losses of kinetic energy by charged particles while in V , and C Q = net energy derived from rest mass in V ( m + E positive, E + m negative). By radiative losses, we mean conversion ofcharged-particle kinetic energy to photon energy, through either bremsstrahlung x-ray production or in-flight annihilation of positrons.

1, let N, be the expectation value of the number of rays striking a finite sphere surrounding point Pduringa time interval extending from an arbitrary starting time to to a later time t. If the sphere is reduced to an infinitesimal at P with a great-circle area of&, we may define a quantity called thefluence, 9, as the quotient of the differential of N, by ah: which is usually expressed in units of m-' or cm-' 2. 5) for all values o f t through the interval from t = to (for which Q = 0) to t = t,,, (for which Q = QmaX).

Let gi be the fraction of Tithat is spent by the particle in radiative interactions along its full path in air, so that 1 - giis the remaining fraction spent in collision interactions. The sum of all the kinetic energy spent by all such electrons in collision interactions can then be written as C; q(1-gi). , mostly bremsstrahlung). Thus 1 - gt! is the fraction of the ion pairs that are produced by collision interactions that occur along the particle track, and Ni( 1 - gi) is the number of such ion pairs produced by that particle.

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