By Werner Wesch, Elke Wendler
This publication offers the strategy of ion beam amendment of solids in consciousness, thought and purposes in a finished means. It offers a overview of the actual fundamentals of ion-solid interplay and on ion-beam brought about structural alterations of solids. Ion beams are prevalent to switch the actual houses of fabrics. a whole conception of ion preventing in subject and the calculation of the power loss as a result of nuclear and digital interactions are awarded together with the impact of ion channeling. to provide an explanation for structural changes because of excessive digital excitations, varied innovations are offered with specified emphasis at the thermal spike version. in addition, normal ideas of wear evolution as a functionality of ion mass, ion fluence, ion flux and temperature are defined intimately and their limits and applicability are mentioned. The impression of nuclear and digital power loss on structural adjustments of solids resembling harm formation, part transitions and amorphization is reviewed for insulators and semiconductors. ultimately a few chosen functions of ion beams are given.
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Additional resources for Ion Beam Modification of Solids: Ion-Solid Interaction and Radiation Damage
33)]. g. the scattering cross section) can be used to test the validity of a given ion-atom interaction potential V(r) or screening function U(r). Small scattering angles are of special interest because they are most sensitive to the behavior of V(r), especially at larger distances. All generalized potentials depend smoothly on r and on Z1 and Z2 as well. Therefore, they cannot take into account effects caused by the shell structure of the electron density and by individual features of a given Z1 − Z2 combination.
93) can be performed explicitly by using the P closure relation jnihnj ¼ 1 (unity operator) which provides 2 Z qmax 2Z1 22 dq b S e ðEÞ ¼ 2p 3 ⁄v qmin q h0jCÃ ½H; Cj0i: ð1:94Þ 34 K. 92)], only the kinetic part of the Hamilton operator H provides a contribution ½H; C ¼ À Z2 Â Z2 Ã À Á ⁄2 X ⁄2 X Dj ; ei q rj ¼ ei q rj q2 À 2i q$j ; 2me j¼1 2me j¼1 where Δj and ∇j are the Laplace operator and the Nabla operator, respectively, acting on the vector rj. 94) reads 2 4 ^e ðEÞ ¼ 4pZ1 2 S me v2 Zqmax qmin + * Z2 À Á dq X iqðrj Àrk Þ 2 q À 2iq$j 0 : 0 e j;k¼1 q3 ð1:95Þ The main contribution to the integral over q is obtained for k = j because for k 6¼ j the exponential function oscillates around zero which diminishes the value of the integral considerably.
The total energy transferred to all electrons of the target atom is given by 1 Ion-Solid Interaction 17 Z T e ðsÞ ¼ b e ðse Þ with dNðs; se Þ T Z dNðs; se Þ ¼ Z2 ; ð1:40Þ where dN(s, se) is the number of electrons within se and se + dse for a given impact parameter s (of the ion with respect to the nucleus of the target atom) which is determined by the electron density qe. For impact parameters s large compared to the extension of the electron distribution, dN(s, se) is approximately given by b e ðsÞ: With Z2 dðs À se Þdse (d is the delta function) providing Te ðsÞ % Z2 T decreasing s, the transferred energy Te(s) becomes ﬁrst a bit larger and then slightly b e ðsÞ: The latter case can easily be proved for s = 0 where smaller than Z2 T À Á1=2 R dNð0; se Þ ¼ dse 2 p se dz qe s2e þ z2 has a strong maximum at se = se,cr ( be.