By Dale Rolfsen
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Additional info for Knot Theory and Manifolds
It was the second year of the severest recession in the West and the second year of the first five-year plan period in the Soviet Union. Everybody was under its spell- it was believed that planned development would accelerate scientific advances as well. Ioffe spoke on this subject at the Odessa Congress; in March 1931 the first All-Union Conference on Planning Scientific Research followed, in December 1932 came the second conference. One can easily imagine that anybody at home with the prevailing ideology of the time and but knowing little about fundamental science, its past and present developments, would be tempted to draw a parallel between the economic crisis in the West and "the new crisis in the theory of quanta".
48 Chapter 3 At the Leningrad Physicotechnical Institute As its title "Relativistic Cosmology Today" suggested, the survey drew a wide picture of the contemporary situation: nine out of twenty-nine works quoted by Bronstein were dated by 1930, the year the survey appeared. The graphic and succinct introduction presented basic astronomical descriptions of the universe's stellar and galactic structure. Bronstein deemed it necessary to note that ... no matter how much the longsightedness of astronomical implements increases, an observer can never aspire to grasp the world as a whole.
They suggested replacing the normal continuous Euclidean space with a discrete entity of points that would form a cubic lattice that would look like an infinite crystal. ':if/ Llx), the solutions of which included the lattice constant, allowing one to get rid of the infinite proper energy. This gave rise to a fundamental difficulty - how to combine this lattice and obviously non-isotropic space with relativity theory. 3 Ambartsumyan and H. D. Ursell, a young British mathematician, tried to remove the difficulty by finding probababilistic ties between observations in different reference systems, that is, to generalize Lorentz's transformations statistically.