By P. Spyns M.F. Moens
At present, a number of synthetic intelligence applied sciences are starting to be more and more mature, together with computational modeling of reasoning, common language processing, details retrieval, details extraction, computer studying, digital brokers, and reasoning with uncertainty. Their integration in and edition to felony wisdom and data structures have to be studied. Parallel to this improvement, e-government functions are steadily gaining floor between neighborhood, nationwide, ecu and overseas associations. greater than 25 years of study within the box of felony wisdom and data platforms have led to many types for criminal wisdom illustration and reasoning. even though, authors and reviewers rightly remarked that there are nonetheless a few crucial inquiries to be solved. First, there's a desire for the combination and harmonization of the versions. Secondly, there's the tricky challenge of data acquisition in a site that's in consistent evolution. If one desires to discover a fruitful marriage among synthetic intelligence and e-government, the help of applied sciences that instantly extract wisdom from ordinary language and from other kinds of human communique and notion is needed.IOS Press is a global technology, technical and scientific writer of fine quality books for teachers, scientists, and pros in all fields. a few of the components we post in: -Biomedicine -Oncology -Artificial intelligence -Databases and knowledge structures -Maritime engineering -Nanotechnology -Geoengineering -All points of physics -E-governance -E-commerce -The wisdom financial system -Urban reviews -Arms keep an eye on -Understanding and responding to terrorism -Medical informatics -Computer Sciences
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Additional info for Legal Knowledge and Information Systems: JURIX 2005: The Eighteenth Annual Conference
This paper argues that legal norms are in many contexts better understood as expressions of a ceteris paribus preference, and that this viewpoint adequately accounts for normative conﬂict and contrary-toduty norms. 1. A Workbench for Legal Knowledge Engineering Deontic concepts are not easily combined with industry standards like UML and OWL. We experienced this when in the DTCA a UML CASE tool was used, even though this created major problems for representing normative knowledge (cf. ). Large organizations are however not easily convinced to abandon “commercial standards” or widely used CASE tools, if only because of a, generally justiﬁable, perception of lack of continuity and quality of technical support of more experimental systems.
If we observe a pattern of agents revealing the same preference, we may infer that having the preference is normal. The legal norm is an extension of the social norm in a speciﬁc kind of social system. Directing others to adopt preferences is the core business of legislators. Since legal norms are usually communicated by prose, the preferences that the legislator communicates to us are understood as a system of declarations and directives (obligations, permissions, and prohibitions). This is by no means the only way to direct others: teachers usually grade the work of students for instance, which is a declarative act, and in this act implicitly direct others.
A. from psychology (viz. ), that the common sense interpretation of permission is indeed symmetric. a. Opalek and Wolenski in . In law, it is for instance generally accepted that freedom of expression includes the freedom to keep your opinion to yourself. a. Alchourron and Bulygin in , and compatibility with existing theories of deontic reasoning demands the asymmetry. The permission only becomes meaningful if it interferes with one or more obligations or prohibitions, and is used in a reasoning system that chooses between incompatible deontic statements and for some reason prefers the permission.