Animals

Life of Marsupials by Hugh Tyndale-Biscoe

By Hugh Tyndale-Biscoe

Joint winner of the 2005 Whitley Medal. integrated in selection Magazine's 2006 awesome educational Titles record. during the last part a century learn has published that marsupials – faraway from being ‘second classification’ mammals – have variations for specific methods of lifestyles fairly equivalent to their placental opposite numbers. regardless of lengthy separate evolution, there are impressive similarities within which marsupials have solved the demanding situations of residing in such environments as deserts, alpine snowfields or tropical rainforests. a few can continue to exist grass, a few on pollen and others on leaves; a few can float, a few can swim and others hop with amazing potency. In lifetime of Marsupials, one of many world’s prime specialists explores the biology and evolution of this strange staff – with their impressive variety of varieties all over the world – in Australia, New Guinea and South the United States. FeaturesWritten by means of a number one specialist on marsupial biology Covers all marsupials in Australia, New Guinea and South the US color pictures of 39 species

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Jennifer Graves (1996) thinks the marsupial pattern is the original or primitive one and that at some early stage of evolution an additional part of an autosome became attached to the original placental X and Y chromosome. A similar fusion of an autosomal chromosome to the original X chromosome has occurred independently in four species of marsupials, which have large X chromosomes. For instance in the long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus, females have 10 autosomes and two large X-chromosomes, while males have 10 autosomes, one large X chromosome, one large Y and one small Y chromosome.

This can be achieved in two ways. The sequence of base pairs along part of the genome can be examined by comparing the sequence with that from other species. Most of the analyses have been done using four mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, valine tRNA, 16S rRNA and cytochrome b DNA) and two nuclear genes (exon and intron of the protamine P1 gene and the exon of inter photo receptor retinoid binding protein or IRBP). These provide information about short lengths of the total genome but, unless many sequences are used together, they suffer from the same shortcomings as amino acid sequences in proteins.

For instance, the failure of adjacent toes to separate (syndactyly) may be controlled by a single gene. The same holds for comparisons between the amino acid sequences of individual proteins, such as albumin, haemoglobin or myoglobin, which have all been used as criteria for determining relationships. What is a marsupial? Marsupial relationships based on DNA The most powerful technique available for determining relationships is the comparison of whole genomes of related species. This can be achieved in two ways.

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