By Fiona MacArthur, José Luis Oncins-Martínez, Manuel Sánchez-García, Ana María Piquer-Píriz
Metaphor is an engaging phenomenon, however it can be advanced and multi-faceted, various in the way it is manifested in several modes of expression, languages, cultures, or time-scales. How then will we reliably determine metaphors in several contexts? How does the language or tradition of audio system and hearers have an effect on the best way metaphors are produced or interpreted? Are the tools hired to discover metaphors in a single context acceptable in others? The 16 chapters that make up this quantity supply not just certain experiences of the positioned use of metaphor in language, gesture, and visuals around the globe – offering vital insights into different elements that produce edition – but additionally cautious explication and dialogue of the methodological matters that come up while researchers procedure metaphor in different ‘real international’ contexts. The ebook constitutes a massive contribution to utilized metaphor reviews, and should turn out a useful source for the beginner and skilled metaphor researcher alike.
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Extra info for Metaphor in Use: Context, culture, and communication
Word sequences, on the other hand, can be trusted to retrieve more unambiguous cases of metaphor (‘waste time’, ‘waste efforts’, ‘waste our lives’, all of which are metaphorical uses of ‘waste’), but they can be difficult to formulate, because the exact word sequences that appear in the corpus may be hard to predict. Node plus collocate searching may be seen as having an advantage over single word searching (‘waste’ followed by ‘time’ at two words to the right will probably not retrieve any cases of non-metaphor), but it also has the major drawback of predicting collocates.
The keyword lists were split into samples that started with the top 100 keywords and were incremented by 100 keywords; samples were then 100, 200, 300, and so on up to 2,044 for the positive keywords and up to 488 for the negative ones. Finally, metaphorically used words were then matched against the keywords, the number of exact matches was recorded, and performance metrics were computed (precision and recall). â•‡ An assessment of metaphor retrieval methods sample by the total metaphorically used words in the corpus (414).
This figure represents the expected distance between metaphors if they were distributed evenly across the corpus. Therefore, a criterion for clustering was set according to which the maximum window size would not exceed the average distance between metaphors across the corpus. Next, the following window sizes were tested: 5, 10, 15 and 20 words, and recall was calculated for each window size. Recall was computed for each text by dividing the number of metaphor tokens occurring within the window by the total number of metaphor tokens in the text multiplied by 100.