Automotive

Mixture Formation in Spark-Ignition Engines by Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. sc. techn. Hans Peter Lenz

By Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. sc. techn. Hans Peter Lenz (auth.)

Twentyfour years have passed by because the book of okay. Lohner and H. MOiler's comprehen­ sive paintings "Gemischbildung und Verbrennung im Ottomotor" in 1967 [1.1]. clearly, the sector of combination formation and combustion within the spark-ignition engine has wit­ nessed nice technological advances and plenty of new findings within the intervening years, in order that the time appeared ripe for proposing a precis of modern examine and advancements. There­ fore, I gladly took up the recommendation of the editors of this sequence of books, Professor Dr. H. checklist and Professor Dr. A. Pischinger, to write down a e-book summarizing the current cutting-edge. a middle of job of the Institute of Internal-Combustion Engines and automobile Engineering on the Vienna Technical collage, which i'm heading, is the sector of blend formation -there­ fore, many new effects which have been accomplished during this region in collaboration with the respective were incorporated during this quantity. the fundamental ideas of combustion are mentioned in basic terms to that volume which appeared useful for an figuring out of the results of blend formation. the focus of this quantity is the aggregate formation in spark-ignition engines, overlaying either the speculation and genuine layout of the combination formation devices and acceptable consumption manifolds. additionally, the comparable size know-how is defined during this work.

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Inflammation is initiated in the prechamber, where a richer mixture is present; the main conversion is then introduced into the main combustion space - which contains a lean mixture - by a flame jet. Charge stratification permits a higher lambda value of the total mixture and leads to lower concentrations of the pollutants NOx and HC. So far, only a small number of stratified-charge engines with divided combustion chambers have been manufactured in series production. One of the best known examples is the Honda CVCC engine, Fig.

Finally, Fig. 19 shows the effect of mixture preparation and mixture distribution on variations of combustion. A comparison is made between an older gasoline injection system, with the common tolerances of that time, and an "ideal" mixture preparation system involving addition of natural gas to the intake air, which yields both excellent mixture preparation and very uniform distribution to the individual cylinders. The illustration shows that the increase in cycle-to-cycle variations with increasing lambda is less in "ideal" than "non-ideal" mixture preparation systems.

The loss due to incomplete expansion is caused by the fact that the working gas cannot expand to the point of ambient pressure during the power stroke. In an engine with crankshaft drive, the expansion ratio equals the compression ratio. With increasing compression, expansion also increases, and the loss due to incomplete expansion is reduced. 1. Basic Principles of Combustion 36 p - V diagram p T T - S diagram J (Q) s - Entropy S V p-V diagram p T T -S diagram ( b) 5' S - v Fig. 39. 1. Amounts of heat added and dissipated in accordance with Fig.

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