By Peter Luger
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Additional resources for Modern X-ray analysis on single crystals : a practical guide
So we have shown that reflections situated on a straight line on a Weissenberg film belong to a reciprocal lattice line passing through the origin. This fact is frequently utilized to determine reciprocal lattice constants directly from the Weissenberg film. If the rotation axis is identical to one of the unit cell vectors, say c, the zero layer Weissenberg exposure contains the hk0 reflections. Since the reciprocal lattice lines h00 and 0k0 pass through the origin of the reciprocal lattice, they appear as lines on the film.
20), we see that the ratio of I (Kα) to I (Kβ) is increased by a factor of 20. However, this improvement is accompanied by a loss of almost 50 % of the Kα-radiation. It is common practice to use as a filter material an element whose atomic number is one or two less than that of the target element, since the absorption edge of the filter then lies between the Kβ- and the Kα-line. 10: Intensity of the Cu radiation and the mass absorption coefficient of nickel, both plotted versus λ. 2: K wavelengths and β-filters for some commonly used X-ray tube target elements .
Taking the two sources of absorption into account, μ is sometimes decomposed into a sum of μ = s + t, with s as the scattering and t as the absorption coefficient. For our purposes, it is sufficient to operate with μ only. Absorption is an additive atomic property of matter, which means that its magnitude does not depend on the physical or chemical state of the atoms. The absorption coefficient of any kind of matter can therefore be calculated by a simple addition, if the absorption coefficients of contributing elements are known.