Atomic Nuclear Physics

Molecular Machines & Motors (Structure and Bonding) by J.-P. Sauvage

By J.-P. Sauvage

This sequence provides serious studies of the current place and destiny developments in sleek chemical learn. It contains brief and concise studies on chemistry, each one written through the world’s popular specialists, and nonetheless legitimate and helpful after five or 10 years.

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In the past several decades, chemists have turned increasingly to biology for clues to design. Biochemists have provided atomic-scale resolution to the operation of enzymes, and brought crucial insights to the ®elds of catalysis, molecular recognition, self-assembly, regulation, and sensors, to name but a few. To date, however, biology has provided little atomic-level information on how to construct a molecular-scale motor. We hope that the synthesis of molecular devices capable of controlled movement will be helpful for the understanding of biological systems.

That resistance to deformation is also a characteristic of springs. An important parameter to investigate prior to the synthesis of the molecular targets is the energy barrier to rotation. In order to study rotation by NMR techniques, an energy barrier on the order of 18±27 kcal mol)1 is required. Molecular modeling calculations (AM1) using the coordinate drive feature of the Spartan program [41] indicated unexpectedly ± at least to us ± that the smaller [3]helicene in 36 presents a greater barrier to rotation (27 kcal mol)1) than the larger [4]helicene in 37 (22 kcal mol)1).

Proposed molecular ratchets Fig. 14. Stereoview of an electron density surface map of the lowest energy conformation of 37b instead of a counterclockwise turning of the triptycene (for the enantiomer of structure 37 that is shown), as would be expected of a ratchet. Helicenes are polycyclic aromatic compounds in which the helical structure is a consequence of a steric repulsion of the terminal aromatic nuclei. The conformation and chirality of helicenes have attracted the attention of many researchers over the years [39].

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