Intelligence Semantics

New Computational Methods in Power System Reliability by David Elmakias

By David Elmakias

Power process reliability is within the concentration of extensive examine as a result of its serious position in supplying strength provide to the trendy society. This publication isn't really aimed toward delivering the assessment of the state-of-the-art in energy approach reliability. to the contrary, it describes software of a few new particular thoughts: common producing functionality technique and its mixture with Monte Carlo simulation and with random tactics tools, Semi-Markov and Markov present versions and genetic set of rules. The ebook could be regarded as complementary to energy method reliability textbooks. it truly is compatible for various kinds of readers. It basically addresses working towards reliability engineers and researchers who've an curiosity in reliability and performability research of energy platforms. it could even be used as a textbook for senior undergraduate or graduate classes in electric engineering.

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The feeders and the stacker-reclaimer can have two states: working with nominal throughput and total failure. 46 New Computational Methods in Power System Reliability The throughput of the sets of conveyors (primary and secondary) can vary depending on the availability of individual two-state conveyors. It can easily be seen that the throughput of the entire system is determined as the throughput of its elements having minimal transmission capacity. The system reliability is defined as its ability to supply a given amount of coal (demand) during a specified operation time.

The reliability criterion should be chosen so that the transmission system can withstand events with the following characteristics: − Possibility of a severe development of the event which might lead to a total blackout. − Probability of the occurrence of the event. 3. Main failures of very high voltage circuits Causes of outage Disconnection of phase conductor Disconnection of ground wire Struck tower or faulted line Pollution Faulted insulator string Lightning strokes Single circuit outage Double circuit outage * * * * * Fire Human error Fault in the switching substation Protective system operation Trees Burnt connecting bridge Birds * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Common outage of different lines * * * * * Based on the experience the components of the transmission system have a high level of reliability (10 to 100 times lower unavailability than power plants).

Corrective actions minimizing the total cost (generation and load shedding) N-1 testing Calculate load flow Overload? Corrective actions minimizing the total cost (generation and load shedding) END Fig. 17. Flowchart of Monte Carlo simulation approach based on N-1 criterion Considering all the results of the various availability states, the following average values are calculated for the studied load demand situation: − Loss of load due to generation; − Probability of not meeting demand; − Loss of load due to the network failure; − Losses; 34 New Computational Methods in Power System Reliability − Frequency of constraint violation in every network component (or risk of overload); − Marginal range of capacity increase for the network components which have been overloaded during the simulation.

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