Agriculture

Nondestructive Measurement in Food and Agro-products by Xiaobo Zou, Jiewen Zhao

By Xiaobo Zou, Jiewen Zhao

This booklet consists of eight chapters, every one targeting an enormous non-destructive strategy, together with optical, acoustic and organic tools. The content material of every bankruptcy is predicated at the author’s experiences and present examine advancements. The e-book is geared toward graduate scholars, senior undergraduate scholars, and researchers in academia and undefined. it will likely be quite fascinating for researchers within the fields of meals, agricultural engineering, biotechnology and utilized arithmetic. it is going to additionally function an invaluable reference resource for individuals operating within the layout and manufacture of non-destructive units for foodstuff and agricultural products.

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These images were then segmented and the features of the defects were extracted. During a learning procedure, the objects were classified into clusters by k-mean clustering. The classification probabilities of the objects were summarized, and on this basis, the fruits were graded using quadratic discriminant analysis. Bennedsen and Peterson [139] performed a system for apple surface defect identification in NIR images through two optical filters at 740 and 950 nm. A multispectral vision system including four wavelength bands in the visible/NIR range was developed [126].

Thus, the shape of an apple can be mathematically described as a periodic function with a period of 2π : r1 (θ + 2π ) = r1 (θ ). A periodic function can be expressed as a combination of trigonometric functions with different frequencies using Fourier series. Fourier expansion was used to characterize the shape of objects by writing the normalized radius r1 as a function of the angle θ, using a sum of sine and cosine functions with a period 2πλ [95]. Only the first period was considered, implying that λ is equal to 1.

Aleixos et al. developed a multispectral camera, which is able to acquire visible and NIR images from the same scene; the design of specific algorithms 34 2 Machine Vision Online Measurements and their implementation on a specific board based on two digital signal processings (DSPs) that work in parallel, which allows to divide the inspection tasks in the different processors, saving processing time [64]. The MV system was mounted on a commercial conveyor, and it is able to inspect the size, color, and the presence of defects in citrus at a minimum rate of 5 fruits/s.

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