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Extra resources for Organizational Change: The Managerial Dilemma
Thus dependence, together with the manipulation of the dependency relationship, was the key to the power of lower participants. Hinings et a/. (1974) explained this power dependence in terms of the difficulty of substituting people who made themselves indispensable. An example from a petrochemical company can be cited to illustrate this. A senior engineering maintenance manager reported on the failure of a performance measurement scheme to provide accurate and reliable information for planning work loads and resource requirements because of the opposition of supervisors to using it.
The transfer was bitterly resented by the field technologists who had hoped for a move into operations sometime in the future, because of the responsibilities and powers they would have in the job which would enable them to achieve a more visible and immediate impact on plant operations through instigating changes in the working practices and procedures of operatives and supervisors entrusted with operating equipment and manning the plant. The immediate consequence of the transfer decision was that the role and the function of the operational technologist were no longer controlled by the production units.
The effectiveness of managers in motivating their staff is dependent upon the degree to which the rewards given are congruent with those that are expected by subordinates. ). The influence of supervision is limited on two major counts. First, the supervisor does not possess the means necessary to control the need satisfaction of his staff. Second, his authority is undermined by his inability to stop an individual's pay or dismiss him for negligence or incompetence on the job. Such matters are taken out of his hands and are invariably dealt with by management-union representatives.