Animals

Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Animals by W. T. W. Potts

By W. T. W. Potts

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15 3). 34 OSMOTIC AND IONIC REGULATION IN ANIMALS Shaw (1959 a and b, 1 9 6 1 a ) and Shaw and Sutcliffe ( 1 9 6 1 ) have shown, in a variety of crustaceans, that while the active influx of ions at high concentrations is independent of the external medium, at low concentrations, it is approximately proportional (Chap. 8, p . 1 3 4 ; Chap. V, Fig. 2, p . 1 9 1 ) . They suggest that the transport mechanism becomes saturated at high external concentrations, but at lower concentrat­ ions the active influx is limited by the availability of ions.

On the other hand, further investigations may disclose a limiting concentra­ tion below which transport is impossible. Shaw's equation w o u l d not then hold at low concentrations, and the relation between influx and external concentration (Chap. IV, Fig. 8; Chap. 2) w o u l d be different. (For a recent review of the efficiency of transporting systems, see Croghan, 1 9 6 1 . ) 40 Active OSMOTIC AND IONIC REGULATION IN ANIMALS Transport of Water Although the net result of ion and water movements may suggest active water transport, a closer investigation usually shows that the water is moving passively.

51 GENERAL ASPECTS OF OSMOREGULATION IN ANIMALS 25 where ^ is the valency of the ion and JJL is the ionic strength of the solution; where C l5 C 2etc. are the molalities of each of the ionic species. i molal solution is about 0 . 8 , and falls to about 0 . 5 molal solutions. 6 (Hinke, 1 9 6 1 ) . In biological equilibria, w e are not concerned with the absolute activities of ions in solution, but only with the ratio of the activities of any ion in t w o different solutions on either side of a membrane.

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