Physical Methods in Modern Chemical Analysis. Volume 2 by Theodore Kuwana

By Theodore Kuwana

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In general, they are electronic modules that will operate two or more p u m p systems that are connected to several reservoirs. Thus, the different solvents are introduced into a mixing area on the high pressure side according to how the operator wants the gradient to change. Typical designs may involve 2 or m o r e identical high pressure p u m p s or one high pressure p u m p combined with a low pressure p u m p . It is also possible to generate gradients with simple mixing chambers and a single p u m p (Snyder, 1965).

Other important performance characteristics that determine a detector's usefulness are its response and noise. Ideally, the Donald J . Pietrzyk 42 detector should respond only to the solute and the response should be independent of the characteristics of the mobile phase. Thus, composition of the mobile phase can be altered, as in gradient elution, without influencing the background detector response. Although individual H P L C detectors may be optimum in several of these requirements, no single detector is optimum in all operating parameters.

33 Instrumentation The Chromatograph 1. Scope M o d e r n liquid column chromatography requires a careful control of all the chromatographic parameters and very sensitive detection if it is to be used eflectively. M u c h of the instrumentation currently used has been developed or refined in the last 10 years and is still subject to improvement. * The liquid Chromatograph should be versatile and inert under the condi­ tions of intended use. It should be capable of providing a wide range of flow rates and a reasonable precision for controlling flow, temperature, solvent composition, and detector response.

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