By Mohammed Najafi (Editor)
Pipe Ramming tasks offers the most recent and most sensible practices utilized by engineers and development pros for the layout and development of street and railroad crossings utilizing pipe ramming applied sciences. The guide is split into seven sections and is predicated upon the result of case experiences, workshops, undertaking reports, technical papers, and different info contributed via specialists. half 1 offers basic innovations and contains an creation, heritage, contemporary techniques, acceptable records, common functions, and a word list of phrases. elements 2 via five supply vital info at the making plans, layout, preconstruction, fabrics, and building stages of the pipe ramming technique. half 6 offers a number of case reports, and half 7 encompasses a record of references. offering either introductory and complicated layout and building info to aid the secure, low-priced, and effective program of the pipe ramming technique, this handbook may be priceless to either new and skilled engineers, in addition to software vendors, contractors, and different pros
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Extra resources for Pipe Ramming Projects: Asce Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 115
Or 100 mm in diameter) Weathered rocks, marl, chalks, and ﬁrmly cemented soils Signiﬁcantly weathered to unweathered rocks Source: Najaﬁ 2005, with permission from McGraw-Hill. Suitable for Ramming Yes Yes Marginal Yes No Yes Yes Yes Marginal Marginal 20 PIPE RAMMING PROJECTS TABLE 2-2. Identiﬁcation of Soil Conditions Based on Standard Penetration Number (N) N Value 60 40 20 10 6 or Less Strength/ ﬁrmness Very hard or very weak Very stiff Stiff Firm Soft Penetration Easily broken by hammer. Penetration to about 5 mm with knife Easily broken by thumbnail.
4-1 in Chapter 4 illustrates a typical lubricating line installation. FIGURE 5-2. Typical lubrication mixer. FIGURE 5-3. Typical lubrication pump. 5 PRODUCTIVITY The productivity of a pipe ramming operation depends on the site conditions, required accuracy of the pipeline grade, project-speciﬁc conditions, welding and set-up time, size and quality of the casing pipe, required pipe ramming equipment, support equipment, and the experience of the contractor and the operator. 2 m) per hour. Corrective action should be considered if the production proceeds at signiﬁcantly less than this rate.
Suitable for Ramming Yes Yes Marginal Yes No Yes Yes Yes Marginal Marginal 20 PIPE RAMMING PROJECTS TABLE 2-2. Identiﬁcation of Soil Conditions Based on Standard Penetration Number (N) N Value 60 40 20 10 6 or Less Strength/ ﬁrmness Very hard or very weak Very stiff Stiff Firm Soft Penetration Easily broken by hammer. Penetration to about 5 mm with knife Easily broken by thumbnail. Penetration to about 15 mm with knife Indented by thumb Penetrated by thumb with effort Easily penetrated by thumb manually pushing against the soil with a person’s thumb and determining the relative difﬁculty in penetrating the soil, as indicated in Table 2-2.