By Ross Homel
Policing and Punishing the consuming Driver is at one point concerning the influence of particular drinking-driving countermeasures (punishments imposed by way of courts on convicted offenders and random breath trying out) in a selected position (New South Wales, Australia) in specific years (1972 and 1983). At one other point, even if, the examine mentioned herein is worried with common questions of deterrence, and with the effect of the legal justice procedure at the belief and behaviour of a huge cross-section of the inhabitants. unlike a lot of the examine within the drink-drive box, the examine questions be aware of the mental and sociological methods wherein habit is altered within the temporary because the results of a tremendous criminal intervention or because the results of the regimen imposition of criminal punishments.
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Extra info for Policing and Punishing the Drinking Driver: A Study of General and Specific Deterrence
However, in applying the model to aggregate data a large number of simplifications had to be introduced, including the assumptions that subjective arrest probabilities are an exponential function of actual arrest probabilities, that the only personal characteristic which affects the exponent (alpha) is number of previous arrests, and that legal costs for an individual can be replaced by the expectations of various components (such as period in jail) for a whole community. Nevertheless the analysis yielded the interesting result that an arrest reduces the probability that a person will drive while drunk, either by increasing the perceived probability of arrest or by increasing the unpleasantness of an arrest.
Should deterrence refer only to the effects of legal sanctions in inhibiting individual deviant impulses by the mechanism of fear (as Gibbs [1975, 1979] argues) or should other preventive mechanisms be included? Gibbs (1975) enumerates nine possible ways that punishment may prevent crime, other than through fear. , probation and parole make the offender visible to authorities), enculturation or socialization (public knowledge of laws is furthered by punishment), reformation (the moral jolt of arrest or punishment), normative validation (legal punishments reinforce social condemnations of an act), retribution (legal punishments discourage crime victims or their families from seeking revenge), stigmatization (the anticipation of stigma may deter the typical citizen more than the punishment itself), normative insulation (incapacitating punishments like imprisonment reduce the influence of offenders on the attitudes and values of others), and, finally, habituation (people may initially conform to the law through fear or for some other reason, but eventually compliance becomes a habit).
In a discussion of predispositional factors in drinking and driving, Vingilis (1984) draws attention to the fact that drive-while-intoxicated offenders frequently have a better knowledge of the law, but are more accepting of drink-driving than other motorists. She also cautions, however, that there is really very little research directed at the identification of potentially high risk drinking drivers. "The populations most at risk from drunken driving are not as well known as those at risk from AIDS, and the drivers most responsible are not profiled as accurately as aircraft hijackers" (Haight, quoted in Vingilis, 1984, p.