Principles and methods of plant breeding by Slavko Borojević

By Slavko Borojević

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Bunga) * Fresh weight. 4 0 , 0 0 0 - 6 0 , 0 0 0 per cupsul 28 in 1948 also showed that following the use of herbicides in 1913 to control weeds in the cane fields, the stolonate and rhizomatous perennials such as Cynodon dactylon, Panicum repens (torpedo grass), Panicum purpurascens (tall panicum) and Paspalum conjugatum (sour grass or Hilo grass) had all but displaced entirely the broad-leafed weeds over the previous years (Hanson, 1962). This overall change of weed populations caused by the long use of herbicides is termed "chemical selection" by Hanson.

Those biennials commonly present in temperate zones are not found in this subtropical region. Though the purple nutsedges which constitute the troublesome tuberous perennials are present in almost all types of soil, they are easily controlled, though with much labour, by repeated applications of 2,4-D sodium or amine formulations. Fortunately such tenacious rhizomatous perennials as Panicum repens, Cynodon dactylon and Imperata cyhndrica do not produce fertile seeds, and are thus limited to reproducing asexually.

In some special cases, the competing species produce toxic substances from either living or dead roots which may be more harmful to the individuals of another species than to the individuals of the same species. Such kinds of competition, involving the role of excretory or secretory substances, is termed 'teletoxicity' by Wildeman (1946, as quoted by King, 1966) and is a highly controversial subject. (4) Juvenile phases of weed plant Different weed species can be identified early in their seedling stages.

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