By Jonathan David Istok
The push-pull attempt is a strong website characterization approach that has been utilized to quite a lot of difficulties in contaminant hydrogeology. The theoretical and useful apsects of push-pull checking out have been at the start built to signify groundwater acquifers however the technique has now been prolonged to saturated and unsaturated soils and sediments in addition to to floor water our bodies. Dr. Istok and his collaborators were instrumental within the improvement of those concepts and he's well known because the world's prime professional push-pull trying out. this is often the one reference ebook on hand in this strong method.
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Extra info for Push-Pull Tests for Site Characterization
Dedicated multilevel wells or multiple closelyspaced wells installed at different depths may also be used for this purpose. g. by recording falling water levels in the tank(s) used to prepare the test solution) as this provides an estimate of the formation volume interrogated during the test and is useful for computing mass balances. For aqueous test solutions mass balance calculations are performed by integrating measure concentrations and volumes during injection. For gaseous test solutions, these calculations are performed by integrating measured gas flow rates, pressures, and temperatures during injection.
The number, type, and concentration of tracers included in the injected test solution depend on the purpose of the test. Tests to determine pore fluid velocity, formation dispersivity, mass transfer coefficients, etc. are typically conducted using only nonreactive tracers, while tests to determine reaction rates are conducted with one or more additional reactive tracers as needed to interrogate the targeted process. ), organic anions (chlorinated or fluorinated benzoic acids), dissolved gases (SF6, He, Ar, Ne), and many other possibilities.
Moreover, some specialty gases are very expensive and it may not be cost effective to bubble sufficient quantities of gas through the test solution to achieve targeted concentrations. In these cases, alternate approaches may be used to prepare aqueous test solutions with specified concentrations of dissolved gas or other volatile components. One approach is to use a coil of gas permeable tubing immersed in the test solution. The tubing is connected to a compressed gas cylinder. When pressurized, gas is transferred to the test solution by diffusion through the tubing walls without bubbling.