By Ali Asghar Semsar Yazdi, Majid Labbaf Khaneiki
This booklet bargains a prepared answer if you happen to desire to study extra approximately this attention-grabbing a part of our water background and makes available to the broader international the conventional wisdom won from construction and keeping qanats for greater than 2,500 years. there's even more the following than a precis of the character and distribution of qanats, and a extra large trip in the course of the philosophy, equipment, instruments, and terminology of qanat layout and digging than formerly assembled.
Where does one start to dig to make sure that the qanat tunnel will circulation with water? How are functional issues of panorama factored into the layout? How are water caliber and discharge measured? How does excavation continue via bedrock and unconsolidated soil and the way is that this wisdom of geology and pedology obtained? How are vertical wells and tunnels excavated to take care of right air offer, mild, and water circulate? How does one care for designated difficulties like tunnel cave in, the buildup of gasses and vapors, and the pooling of water in the course of building? How are instruments and gauges designed, maintained, and used? How have qanats been included into different constructions like watermills, reservoirs, ice homes, and irrigation networks? and the way are qanats wiped clean, prolonged, maintained during the a long time, and integrated into sleek water supplies?
The nice contribution of this paintings is the tale it tells of the ingenuity and sensible talents of the qanat masters who for hundreds of years and generations have lower an uncountable variety of tunnels via bedrock and alluvium utilizing hand instruments and homespun options to difficulties that may vex the main skilled university-trained engineers.
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Additional resources for Qanat Knowledge: Construction and Maintenance
Qanat civilization was the civilization of peace, cooperation and friendly coexistence. 7 Qanat in Comparison with Other Water Related Structures Altogether water is the most abundant element on the earth and is also the most serious problem that humans have ever faced in the course of their history, a problem that used to overwhelm humans because of whether its influx or its scarcity. We set foot in the world with plenty of water which makes up 80 % of our body as infant. 7 Qanat in Comparison with Other Water Related Structures 17 Somewhere between 70 and 75 % of the earth’s surface is covered with water.
Therefore these qanats have ﬂuctuations throughout a year. In general these qanats do not enjoy a considerable discharge. The following ﬁgure portrays a qanat of this type (Fig. 5). Though these qanats are ﬂuctuating over a year and they may even dry up for a while, they come alive again whenever precipitation is enough. But the plain qanats are more stable but harder to become active again after drying up. The plain qanats are fed by thick and deep aquifers which have formed over the past hundreds of years, so over-exploitation of such aquifers leads to their depletion which cannot be ﬁxed that soon.
In Iran in Bam there exist a large number of such qanats some of which drain out 250 l per second of groundwater. They are ranked among the qanat largest discharges. In the picture below you can see a typical qanat which is fed by the underground streams (Fig. 4). (C) Extracting shallow aquifers: the mountainous areas which are considered source of recharge for the plains downstream usually enjoy shallow and limited aquifers which closely correlate with the amount of precipitation. In fact the alluvium lying on the mountain base is a passage way for the water to ﬂow down toward the plain.