By William E Lee, Michael I Ojovan, Carol M Jantzen
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Extra resources for Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up: Processes, technologies and international experience
Combustibility. Reactivity. Gas generation. Sorption of radionuclides. Chemical Potential hazard. Decomposition rate and products. 4 Schematic classification of radioactive wastes aiming for clearance, decay storage or disposal. that radioactive waste that meets the criteria for clearance, exemption or exclusion from regulatory control for radiation protection purposes which are given in IAEA publications (IAEA, 2003b, 2009). The criteria for exemption were established by the IAEA following the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) recommendations and principles used to derive exemption levels for radioactive materials.
Threat reduction programmes aimed at reducing the amount of HEU at civilian facilities have been in place since 1978, when the USA initiated the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme. Russia also initiated a programme to reduce enrichment at Soviet-built research reactors outside the Soviet Union. In the past 25 years, many countries have cooperated with the RERTR programme or initiated their own similar programmes. In 2004, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) which the IAEA, Russia, and others have since joined.
Four severely exposed people died and the health of many others was seriously affected. More than 112,000 people were monitored for radiation exposure, of which nearly 300 showed 137Cs contamination. 25 Sv 1963 1964 1964 1984 1986 1987 1992 1996 2011 Co SRS H Criticality 192 Ir SRS NPP 137 Cs SRS 60 Co SRS 60 Co SRS NPP 3 Source: Adapted from Ojovan and Lee (2005). © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013 6/2 4/1 4/1 11/8 134/31 50/4 8/3 115/13 6/none Fundamentals of radioactive waste (RAW) 23 gency response and clean-up effort of houses, buildings and land lasted six months.