By Barbara Johnstone
During this exam of expository prose in modern Arabic, structural and semantic repetition is located to be liable either for linguistic solidarity and for rhetorical strength. Johnstone identifies and discusses repetitive good points on each point of research. Writers in Arabic use lexical couplets together with conjoined synonyms, which create new semantic paradigms as they evoke previous ones. Morphological roots and styles are repeated at shut variety, and this creates phonological rhyme to boot. standard styles of paraphrase punctuate texts, and styles of parallelism mark the inner constitution in their segments. Johnstone bargains an evidence for the way repetition of these types of types can serve persuasive ends by way of growing rhetorical presence, and discusses how the Arabic language and the Arab-Islamic cultural culture specifically lend themselves to this rhetorical procedure. She indicates, notwithstanding, that discourse repetition serves an important functionality within the ecology of any language, because the mechanism wherein audio system evoke and create underlying paradigmatic constitution of their syntagmatic speak and writing.
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Additional info for Repetition in Arabic Discourse: Paradigms, Syntagms and the Ecology of Language
I will return to these questions about how couplets are formed and why they are used later on in this chapter, and again in more detail in my discussion of Arabic couplets. discuss some approaches to First, parallelism though, I which are would like to not studies of couplets. The rhetoric The of the studies (canonic, series discussed dyadic parallelism) addresss the same questions parallelism as contrast, an oral will above consist and are all similar brief in theme approach (ethnographic), and all (semantic relationships phenomenon, among of very in couplets, and others).
Fox (1971, 1974, widespread in Indonesia. 1988) has found For example, canonical parallelism to be Rotinese ritual language is, Fox says (1974: 73), a 'formal speech code [which] consists of speaking in pairs, The semantic elements that form 22 REPETITION AND THE ECOLOGY OF LANGUAGE these pairs or dyadic sets are highly determined. Sets are structured in foraulaic phrases and their presentation generally consists in compositions of parallel verses, Fox's examples of t h i s formal speech code a r e bini, Examples of t h e use of five four l i n e s of one dyadic p a i r s can be or r i t u a l c h a n t s .
Gossen r e l a t e s Chamula dyadic central of a sun uncontrolled the heat speech is the world, points symbolism. out the view of Bricker says t h e parallelism: couplets, verbal or t h e d u a l i s t i c Chinese dualistic principle speech t o and of example, r e l a t i o n s h i p of Chinese p a r a l l e l i s m t o the the world, of canonical p a r a l l e l i s m conceptions she s a y s , are a p e r v a s i v e in Zinecanteco control involved in producing the c o n t r o l of h e a t , in accordance with t h e metaphor of the Chamula; spontaneous, l i k e u n c o n t r o l l e d , d e s t r u c t i v e heat, whereas formal speech, using "words which do not know how to change" i s 27 PARADIGMS AND PARALLELISM controlled, constructive heat.