Environmental Engineering

Saturated Flow and Soil Structure: A Review of the Subject by Heiko Diestel

By Heiko Diestel

Soil and water pollutants have a major effect at the setting, and soil scientists and hydrologists desire primary aid for the estimation of the implications. The experiments defined during this quantity care for the quantification of the morphology of interaggregate voids and of the circulation via such voids in addition to round impermeable inclusions. The diagrams given within the appendix can be utilized as references for such measurements. This paintings is positioned into the context of the foreign literature at the topic. An index and a word list entire the amount. the topic of this paintings is of serious curiosity to hydrologists and soil scientists engaged on the estimation of the results of soil and water pollution.

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Extra info for Saturated Flow and Soil Structure: A Review of the Subject and Laboratory Experiments on the Basic Relationships

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There are two causes of energy losses for flow through granular media: kinetic energy losses and losses resulting from viscosity, in relationship with the flow velocity. The uncertainties encountered in the definition of the conditions for the occurrence of respective energy losses gave Ergun (1952) reason to describe flow behavior by circumventing coefficients such as "hydraulic conductivity" but considering flow velocity and employing the quotient A, which is derived from the division of the total energy loss by the losses caused by viscosity.

In a number of measuring points, the infiltration rates showed an increase after the "classical" initial decrease. He attributed this to "macropore" effects. A further important result was that overland flow could never take place due to the relationship of precipitation intensities to minimum infiltration rates. Water movement was 30 Survey of the Subject predominantly vertical, and took place mainly in the macropores (tensiometer measurements, tracer studies and thin section investigations as well as artificial rain applications were carried out concurrently).

1967), Zobeck and Onstad (1987), Linden et al. (1988), Wang (1988), Helming (1992) and others. A wealth of relationships and expressions for lines and surfaces still lies untapped in publications on stereology (Underwood 1970; Weibe11979, 1980). A second important question (with probably many answers) refers to the soils, the range of slopes as well as the durations and intensities of rains, for which parameters of microrelief are of importance. A very informative review article on the subject has been written by Zobeck and Onstad (1987).

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