By Doru Stefanescu

The third version of this well known textbook covers present issues in all components of casting solidification. Partial differential equations and numerical research are used commonly during the textual content, with a variety of calculation examples, to aid the reader achieve a operating wisdom of computational solidification modeling. The positive aspects of this new version contain: new chapters on semi-solid and steel matrix composites solidification a considerably prolonged therapy of multiscale modeling of solidification and its functions to advertisement alloys a survey of recent themes similar to solidification of multicomponent alloys and molecular dynamic modeling new theories, together with a conception on oxide bi-films within the therapy of shrinkage difficulties an in-depth therapy of the theoretical features of the solidification of crucial advertisement alloys together with metal, forged iron, aluminum-silicon eutectics, and superalloys up-to-date tables of fabric constants."

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**Extra info for Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification**

**Example text**

3 During casting solidification, significant flow of the molten metal will affect the local composition. The driving forces for fluid flow can be internal or external. The internal sources of fluid flow include shrinkage (solidification contraction) flow, natural convection, capillary forces, formation of gas bubbles, and deformation of solid phases because of thermal stress and static pressure. The external driving forces may include centrifugal and/or electromagnetic forces. Gravity plays an important role in the formation of segregation.

1955), the solid composition in the final transient can be calculated with: x) + 5 (I - k X2 - k) exp(- 6V x) + c~ =1+ 3 1 - k ex p(- 2V I+k D Co + .. (n-k) [n(n+l)VX] ( X ) ( )exp I+k 2+k ... 16) 0 at the end of the specimen. 8. Solute accumulation during the final transient. ~~~ '----------- x 39 So far, it was assumed that the solidification velocity is constant during solidification. However, this condition does not hold in most solidification processes. Notable exceptions are directional solidification and crystal growth.

If the solidification velocity V is suddenly increased (V> Vo), the diffusion layer decreases, which means that the amount of solute transported forward decreases. 9. On the contrary, when the solidification velocity is suddenly decreased (V < V,,), a band poor in solute (negative segregation) is formed. If V or b~. varies periodically, then periodical composition changes are produced. They are called banding. 4 Limited diffusion in solid, complete diffusion in liquid The first model that attempted to describe this problem was proposed by Brody and Flemings (1966).