Aeronautical Engineering

Space Psychology and Psychiatry (Space Technology Library) by Nick Kanas

By Nick Kanas

The first variation of this ebook was once voted Winner of the 2004 foreign Academy of Astronautics lifestyles Sciences Award. the second one variation offers with mental, psychiatric, and psychosocial concerns that have an effect on those that dwell and paintings in house. not like different books that target anecdotal experiences and ground-based simulation reviews, this publication emphasizes the findings from mental learn performed in the course of genuine area missions. either authors were lively in such research.

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Certainly, they cannot be regarded as pathological, and they demonstrate that humans are highly adaptive organisms. However, this adaptivity is associated with considerable “costs” which become apparent as soon as an astronaut returns to Earth. , loss of orthostatic tolerance, muscle atrophy, bone demineralization). However, the degree of de-conditioning in these systems and their related risks can be reduced to a considerable degree by applying specific countermeasures during the flight. , 2007].

2001]. , 1998] can be taken as an indicator of alterations of Process S in space. However, the specific underlying mechanisms of these effects are unknown, and further research is required to substantiate this hypothesis. The second major physiological process affecting sleep regulation is the circadian process, which relates to rhythmical changes of virtually all physiological and psychological functions throughout the day-night cycle and is an adaptation of the human organism to the natural change of day and night on Earth.

For example, Gander et al. [1991] analyzed changes in the circadian system of three participants of an expedition to Antarctica during the polar summer when photic zeitgebers are absent due to permanent daylight. , the minimum of body temperature occurred 2 h later than usual). Because bedtimes remained unchanged, this led to a shift of the circadian phase relationship between temperature rhythm and sleep-wake cycle, leading to an elevated temperature during sleep associated with difficulties falling asleep, increased sleep disturbances, and feelings of poor sleep quality.

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